From Normandy to Windsor

The Normans

The Plantagenets

The Lancastrians

The Yorkists

The Tudors

The Stuarts

The Hanoverians

The Windsors

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Robert I, Duke of Normandy

1027

  • August 6: Robert I ascends the dukedom of Normandy

1028

  • William of Normandy is born to Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Herleva of Falaise

1031

  • Matilda of Flanders is born to Baldwin V, Count of Flanders and Adela of France

1035

  • January: Robert I, Duke of Normandy orders Norman magnates to swear fealty to William of Normandy
  • July: Robert I, Duke of Normandy dies at Nicea; William II ascends the dukedom of Normandy

1037 – 1047: Anarchy in Normandy

1049

  • Marriage between William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders is proposed
  • October: Pope Leo IX forbids the marriage of William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1051

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Matilda of Flanders, wife of William I, in the Luxembourg Gardens in Paris

1052

  • Robert of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1054

  • Richard of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1056

  • William of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1058

  • Adeliza of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1059

  • Cecily of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1060

  • Constance of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1061

  • Matilda of Normandy is born to William II, Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders

1063

  • Robert of Normandy, son of William, Duke of Normandy, is made Count of Maine

The House of Normandy

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The Bayeux tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings

1066

  • January 5: Edward the Confessor, King of England dies in London; Harold Godwinson ascends the English throne
  • January 6: Harold Godwinson is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • October 14: William II, Duke of Normandy defeats Harold Godwinson, King of England at the Battle of Hastings
  • October 14: Harold Godwinson is killed at the Battle of Hastings; William II, Duke of Normandy ascends the English throne as William I
  • December 25: William I is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey

1067

  • March: William I leaves England for Normandy
  • December: Adela of Normandy is born to William I and Matilda of Flanders
  • December: William I leaves Normandy for England

1068

  • March: Matilda of Flanders joins William I in England
  • May 11: Matilda of Flanders is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • December: Henry of Normandy is born to William I and Matilda of Flanders in Yorkshire

1069 – 1075

  • Richard of Normandy, son of William I, dies in the New Forest

1073

  • William I leaves England for Normandy and returns a few months later

1074

  • William I spends the entire year in Normandy

1075

  • William I defeats the Revolt of the Earls, the last resistance to the Norman Conquest
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William I, r. 1066 – 1087

1077

  • Robert, Count of Maine, son of William I, leads his first insurrection against his father over the actions of his younger brothers, William and Henry of Normandy

1079

  • Robert, Count of Maine, son of William I, unhorses his father in battle

1080

  • Matilda of Scotland is born to Malcolm III, King of Scotland and Margaret of Wessex
  • Easter: William I and his son, Robert, Count of Maine are reunited thanks to Matilda of Flanders, Queen of England

1082

  • Adela of Normandy, daughter of William I, and Stephen of Blois are married
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Adela of Normandy, Countess of Blois

1083

  • November: Matilda of Flanders, Queen of England, wife of William I, dies
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Tomb of Matilda of Flanders in Caen

1085

  • December 25: William I orders the completion of the Domesday Book
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The Domesday Book in the National Archives

1086

  • August 1: The Domesday Book is completed
  • Matilda of Normandy, daughter of William I, dies

1087

  • Constance of Normandy and Alan IV, Duke of Brittany are married
  • September 9: William I dies at the Priory of Saint Gervase in Rouen; William of Normandy ascends the English throne as William II, and Robert of Normandy ascends the dukedom of Normandy as Robert II
  • September 26: William II is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
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William II, r. 1087 – 1100

1088

  • William II defeats the Revolt of 1088
  • Henry of Normandy, son of William I, is named Count of Cotentin

1089

  • Stephen of Blois, husband of Adela of Normandy, daughter of William I, inherits the county of Blois

1090

  • Robert II, Duke of Normandy takes the County of Cotentin away from his brother, Henry of Normandy
  • August 13: Constance of Normandy, Duchess of Brittany, daughter of William I, dies

1091

  • William II successfully invades Normandy, defeating Robert II, Duke of Normandy. They eventually reconciled.

1092

  • Stephen of Blois is born to Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy, Countess of Blois in Blois

1094

  • William II attacks Normandy once again

1096

  • Robert II, Duke of Normandy leaves for the First Crusade in the Holy Land

1097 – 1099

  • William II serves as regent for his brother, Robert II, Duke of Normandy

1100

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Henry I, r. 1100 – 1135

1101

  • July 20: Robert II, Duke of Normandy lands in England to claim the throne
  • The Treaty of Alton is signed, in which Robert II, Duke of Normandy recognizes Henry I as the king of England

1102

  • February 7: Matilda of England is born to Henry I and Margaret of Scotland
  • May 12: Stephen, Count of Blois dies; Adela of Normandy assumes the regency of Blois on behalf of her son, Theobold III.
  • October 25: William Clito is born to Robert II, Duke of Normandy and Sybilla of Conversano
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Matilda of Scotland, Queen of England, wife of Henry I

1103

  • Adeliza of Louvain is born to Godfrey I, Count of Louvain and Ida of Namur
  • March 18: Sybilla of Conversano, Duchess of Normandy dies in Rouen
  • August 5: William Adelin of England is born to Henry I and Margaret of Scotland

1103 – 1107: English investiture controversy

1105

  • Matilda of Boulogne is born to Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Mary of Scotland in Boulogne
  • Henry I invades Normandy; Bayeux and Caen are captured

1106

  • September 28: Henry I defeats Robert II, Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Tinchebray, claiming Normandy for England

1110

  • February: Matilda of England, daughter of Henry I, leaves England for Germany
  • April 10: Matilda of England, daughter of Henry I, and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor are betrothed at Liege
  • July 25: Matilda of England, daughter of Henry I, is crowned Queen of the Romans in Mainz

1111

  • Robert of Shrewsbury leads a rebellion in Normandy and Henry I launches a military campaign in response

1112

  • Robert of Shrewsbury is captured, ending the rebellion
  • Cecily of Normandy, daughter of William I, is named Abbess of Holy Trinity in Caen
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The Abbey of the Holy Trinity in Caen

1113

  • The Treaty of Gisors is signed, in which France recognizes English rule over Maine and Brittany

1114

  • January 7: Matilda of England, daughter of Henry I, and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor are married at Worms

1116

  • Henry I launches a military campaign against France, Anjou and Flanders

1118

1119

  • June: William Adelin of England, son of Henry I, and Matilda of Anjou are married
  • August 20: Henry I defeats Louis VI, King of France at the Battle of Bremule in Normandy

1120

  • Adela of Normandy, Countess of Blois, daughter of William I, retires to the Marcigny Convent
  • November 25: William Adelin of England, son of Henry I, dies on the White Ship crossing the English Channel
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The sinking of the White Ship

1121

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Adeliza of Louvain, Queen of England, second wife of Henry I

1122

  • Eleanor of Aquitaine is born to William X, Duke of Aquitaine and Aenor de Chatellerault in Poitiers

1124

  • Henry I attempts to invade France and fails

1125

  • Stephen of Blois, Count of Mortain, grandson of William I, and Matilda of Boulogne are married
  • Eustace III, Count of Boulogne dies, leaving the county of Boulogne to Stephen of Blois, Count of Mortain and Matilda of Boulogne
  • May 23: Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor dies at Utrecht

1126

  • July 30: Cecily of Normandy, Abbess of Holy Trinity, daughter of William I, dies in Caen
  • December 25: Henry I asks his nobles to recognize his daughter, Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress as his heir

1127

  • January 1: The English nobles accept Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress as the heir to the English throne
  • Eustace of Blois is born to Stephen, Count of Boulogne and Matilda, Countess of Boulogne
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Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress

1128

  • June 17: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, daughter of Henry I, and Geoffrey Martel of Anjou are married

1129

  • Geoffrey Martel ascends the county of Anjou

1131

  • September 8: The barons swear allegiance to Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress as the heir to the English throne

1133

  • March 5: Henry of Anjou is born at Le Mans to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress
  • August: Henry I leaves England for Normandy

1134

  • February 3: Robert II, Duke of Normandy dies at Cardiff Castle
  • June 1: Geoffrey of Anjou is born to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress in Rouen

1135

  • December 1: Henry I dies in Normandy
  • December 22: Stephen of Blois, grandson of William I, claims the throne as King Stephen
  • December 26: Stephen of Blois is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
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King Stephen, r. 1135 – 1154

1136

  • Marie of Blois is born to King Stephen and Matilda of Boulogne
  • February 5: The Treaty of Durham is signed, in which Stephen concedes Cumberland to David I, King of Scotland
  • July 22: William of Anjou is born to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress in Normandy

1137

  • William of Boulogne is born to King Stephen and Matilda of Boulogne
  • March 8: Adela of Normandy, Countess of Blois, daughter of William I, dies at Marcigny-sur-Loire dies
  • March: King Stephen fails to capture Normandy from Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, daughter of Henry I
  • April 9: William X, Duke of Aquitaine dies, leaving Aquitaine to his daughter, Eleanor
  • July 25: Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine and Louis, Prince of France are married in Bordeaux
  • August 1: Louis, Duke of Aquitaine and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine inherit the French throne
  • December 25: Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine are crowned king and queen of France
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The wedding of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Louis VII, King of France

1138

  • January – February: David I, King of Scotland raids Northumberland
  • May: Robert, Earl of Gloucester leads a rebellion in favor of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress
  • June 10: The Scottish defeat the English at the Battle of Clotheroe
  • August 22: The English defeat the Scottish at the Battle of the Standard
  • Adeliza of Louvain, Queen of England, widow of Henry I, and William d’Aubigny, Earl of Arundel are married

1139

  • April 9: The Treaty of Durham is signed, in which David I, King of Scotland’s son, Henry, takes control of Northumberland
  • September 30: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, daughter of Henry I, lands in Arundel to take back the throne from King Stephen
  • November 7: Robert, Earl of Gloucester, an illegitimate son of Henry I, takes control of Worcester

1140

  • Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne and Constance of France, daughter of Louis VI, King of France and Adelaide of Maurienne, Queen of France, are married
  • December: Ranulf, Earl of Chester takes control of Lincoln

1141

  • February 2: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress defeats King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln
  • April 8: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress is proclaimed queen and King Stephen is captured
  • June 24: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress is forced to leave Westminster for Oxford
  • July: Matilda of Boulogne, Queen of England, wife of King Stephen, re-captures London
  • September 14: Robert, Earl of Gloucester, illegitimate son of Henry I, is captured during fighting at Winchester
  • November 1: King Stephen and Robert, Earl of Gloucester are exchanged as prisoners, ending the reign of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress
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The Battle of Lincoln

1142

  • Henry of Anjou, son of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, arrives in England for the first time
  • September 26: King Stephen captures Oxford and besieges Oxford Castle, in which Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress resides.
  • December: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress escapes from Oxford

1144

  • Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, husband of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, completes the conquest of Normandy
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Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, husband of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress

1145

  • Marie of France is born to Louis VII, King of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France

1147

  • Henry of Anjou returns to England to fight on behalf of his mother, Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress

1148

  • William of Blois, son of King Stephen, and Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey are married
  • February: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress is forced to return to Normandy

1150

  • Henry of Anjou, son of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, inherits the duchy of Normandy
  • Summer: Alix of France is born to Louis VII, King of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France

1151

  • Henry, Duke of Normandy, son of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, pays homage to Louis VII, King of France
  • April 23: Adeliza of Louvain, Queen of England, widow of Henry I, dies in Brabant
  • September 7: Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, husband of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, dies at the Chateau-du-Loir
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Heddingham Castle, where Matilda of Boulogne, Queen of England, consort of King Stephen, died

1152

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Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1153

  • January: Henry, Duke of Normandy, son of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, arrives in England
  • August 17: Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne, son of King Stephen, dies in Suffolk; William of Blois, younger son of King Stephen, inherits the county of Boulogne as William I
  • August 17: William Plantagenet is born to Henry, Duke of Normandy and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, is named Count of Poitiers
  • November 7: The Treaty of Wallingford is signed in which King Stephen and Henry, Duke of Normandy end the civil war and Henry is named heir to the English throne

The House of Plantagenet 

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Henry II and his children

1154

  • October 25: King Stephen dies at Dover; Henry, Duke of Normandy ascends the English throne as Henry II
  • December 29: Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine are crowned king and queen of England at Westminster Abbey

1155

1156

  • January 6: Matilda Plantagenet is born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England in Berkshire
  • February 5: Henry II pays homage to Louis VII, King of France to secure Normandy, Aquitaine and Anjou
  • April: William IX, Count of Poitiers, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, dies in Berkshire
  • Henry II suppresses a revolt by his brother, Geoffrey of Anjou and appoints him Count of Nantes

1157

  • May: Malcom IV, King of Scotland is named Earl of Huntingdon in exchange for Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland
  • Summer: Henry II launches a campaign in Wales
  • July: Owain Gwynedd pays homage to Henry II
  • September 8: Richard Plantagenet is born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine in Oxford

1158

  • Summer: Henry II leaves England for Normandy
  • July 27: Geoffrey, Count of Nantes, son of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, dies in Nantes
  • August: An Anglo-French treaty is signed in which Henry of England is betrothed to Marguerite of France
  • September 23: Geoffrey Plantagenet is born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine is born

1159

  • England unsuccessfully attacks Toulouse
  • October 11: William I, Count of Boulogne, son of King Stephen, dies in Toulouse; Marie I, William’s sister, inherits the county of Boulogne

1160

  • Marie I, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of King Stephen, is abducted from Romsey Abbey by Matthew of Alsace and forced into marriage
  • November 2: Henry Plantagenet and Margaret of France, daughter of Louis VII, King of France, are betrothed

1161

  • January 5: Edward the Confessor, King of England is canonized by the Catholic Church

1162

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Henry II and Thomas Becket

1163

  • January: Henry II successfully suppresses a revolt in Wales, captures Rhys ap Gruffydd
  • July 1: Henry II calls on the Welsh princes and Malcolm IV, King of Scotland to pay homage

1164

  • January: Henry II enacts the Constitution of Clarendon
  • January 20: William of Anjou, son of Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, dies in Rouen
  • Marie of France, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England, and Henry I, Count of Champagne are married
  • Alix of France, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England, and Theobold V, Count of Blois are married

1165

1166

  • Henry II invades Brittany and forces Conan IV, Duke of Brittany to abdicate in favor of his daughter, Constance; Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany are betrothed
  • December 24: John Plantagenet is born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine in Oxford

1167

  • September 10: Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress, daughter of Henry I, dies in Rouen

1168

1169

  • January: The Treaty of Monmirail is signed, in which Henry II divides his French territories by leaving Aquitaine to Richard, Brittany to Geoffrey and the remainder to Henry

1170

  • Berengaria of Navarre is born to Sancho VI, King of Navarre and Sancha and Castile
  • The marriage between Marie I, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of King Stephen, and Matthew of Alsace is annulled; Marie I re-enters the religious orders
  • Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of Henry II, and Alfonso VIII, King of Castile are betrothed
  • June 14: Henry Plantagenet, son of Henry II, is crowned the Young King
  • July 22: Henry II and Thomas Becket are reconciled
  • September 21: England captures Dublin
  • December 29: Thomas Becket is murdered by four of Henry II’s knights
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The murder of Thomas Becket

1171

  • October 16: Henry II declares himself Lord of Ireland

1172

  • August 27: Henry Plantagenet, the Young King, son of Henry II, and Margaret of France, daughter of Louis VII, King of France, are married at Winchester Cathedral

1173

  • Isabella of Gloucester is born to William Fitz Robert, Earl of Gloucester and Hawise de Beaumont
  • February 21: Thomas Becket is canonized
  • March: Henry Plantagenet, the Young King, son of Henry II, leaves England for the French court; Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Henry II, is placed under house arrest
  • March: William I, King of Scotland invades the North of England

1174

  • Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of Henry II, and Alfonso VIII, King of Castile are married in Burgos
  • July 8: Henry Plantagenet, the Young King, son of Henry II, and Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Henry II, leave France for England; Eleanor  is imprisoned upon her return
  • July 12: Henry II does penance at Canterbury for the murder of Thomas Becket
  • September 30: The Treaty of Monlouis is signed, in which Henry II makes peace with his sons
  • December 8: William I, King of Scotland is released in exchange for Scotland paying homage to England
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Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1175

  • October: The Treaty of Windsor is signed, in which Henry II recognizes Ruaidri Ua Conchobair as King of Ireland

1176

  • May 20: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Henry II, and William II, King of Sicily are betrothed
  • August 27: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Henry II, leaves England for Sicily
  • September 28: John Plantagenet, son of Henry II, and Isabella of Gloucester are betrothed

1177

1180

  • September: Henry II renews the Pact of Ivry with Philip II, King of France

1182

  • Henry Plantagenet, the Young King, son of Henry II, leads a rebellion against his father in Aquitaine
  • July 25: Marie I, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of King Stephen, dies in Montreuil

1183

  • June 11: Henry Plantagenet, the Young King, son of Henry II, dies in Lot

1185

  • January 29: Henry II declines an offer to become King of Jerusalem
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England, wife of Henry II, takes control of Aquitaine
  • April 25: John Plantagenet, son of Henry II, is appointed Lord of Ireland, is recalled in December

1186

  • William I, King of Scotland is restored to Edinburgh by England
  • August 19: Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany dies in Paris; Philip II, King of France claims control of Brittany

1187

  • May: Philip II, King of France invades Aquitaine, which ends in a truce

1188

  • Isabella of Angouleme is born to Aymer, Count of Angouleme and Alice of Courtenay
  • November 11: Henry II refuses to name his son, Richard Plantagenet, his heir; Richard pays homage to Philip II, King of France
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The tomb of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine at Fontrevaud Abbey

1189

  • June 28: Matilda Plantagenet, Duchess of Saxony, daughter of Henry II, dies in Brunswick
  • July 4: Henry II surrenders to his son, Richard Plantagenet, agrees to make him his heir and pay an indemnity
  • July 6: Henry II dies in Chinon; Richard Plantagenet ascends the English throne as Richard I
  • August 13: Richard I lands in England from Barfleur
  • August 29: John Plantagenet, son of Henry II, and Isabella of Gloucester are married in Wiltshire
  • September 3: Richard I is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • December 12: Richard I embarks on the Third Crusade
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The coronation of Richard I

1190

  • February 6: The majority of Norwich’s Jewish population is massacred
  • March 7: Jewish massacre at Stamford Fair
  • March 16: Jewish massacre in York
  • March 18: Massacre at Bury St. Edmunds
  • July 4: Richard I, King of England and Philip II, King of France leave France to join the Third Crusade

1191

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Berengaria of Navarre, Queen of England, consort of Richard I

1192

  • December 11: Richard I is taken prisoner by Leopold V, Duke of Austria while returning from the Third Crusade

1193

  • February 14: Custody of Richard I is handed over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor

1194

  • February 4: Richard I is ransomed from captivity
  • March 12 – 28: Richard I returns to England and attempts to re-claim Nottingham Castle from his brother, John Plantagenet, Earl of Gloucester
  • April 17: Richard I is crowned king of England at Winchester
  • May 12: Richard I leaves England for France
  • July 3: The English win the Battle of Freteval over the French

1195

  • The Treaty of Louviers is signed, suspending war between England and France

1196

1198

  • Alix of France, Countess of Blois, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England, dies
  • March 11: Marie of France, Countess of Champagne, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England, dies in Champagne
  • June: England and France resume war
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King John

1199

1200

  • May 22: The Treaty of Le Goulet is signed between England and France, in which King John is confirmed as ruler of portions of France
  • August 24: King John and Isabella of Angouleme are married in Angouleme
  • October 8: Isabella of Angouleme is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • October: King John receives the homage of William I, King of Scotland at Lincoln
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Isabella of Angouleme, Queen of England, wife of King John

1201

  • April 10: King John permits Jews to live freely in England and Normandy

1202

  • April 30: In response to King John failing to answer complaints from barons in Poitou, Philip II, King of France confiscates English land in France and gives it to Arthur I, Duke of Brittany
  • June 16: Isabella of Angouleme inherits the county of Angouleme
  • July: King John rescues Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England from almost capture by Arthur I, Duke of Brittany

1203

  • April: Philip II, King of France seizes the Loire Valley from England

1204

  • April 1: Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England, widow of Henry II, dies in Poitiers
  • June 24: Philip II, King of France seizes Rouen, ending England’s rule in Normandy
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Fontrevaud Abbey, the resting place of Henry II, Eleanor of Aquitaine and Richard I

1206

  • June 7: England invades France to defend Aquitaine
  • October 26: England and France reach a two-year truce

1207

  • October 1: Henry Plantagenet is born to King John and Isabella of Angouleme at Winchester Castle

1208

  • May 23: Pope Innocent III bans church services in England and King John confiscates all church properties

1209

  • January 5: Richard Plantagenet is born to King John and Isabella of Angouleme at Winchester Castle
  • August: Scotland pays off England after a threatened invasion
  • November: Pope Innocent III excommunicates King John

1210

  • Joan Plantagenet is born to King John and Isabella of Angouleme

1214

  • Joan Plantagenet, daughter of King John, is sent to Hugh X of Lusignan for marriage
  • Isabel Plantagenet is born to King John and Isabella of Angouleme in Gloucester
  • February 15: King John lands in France to invade
  • Jul 27: French forces defeat English troops at the Battle of Bouvines
  • September 18: The Treaty of Chinon is signed, in which King John and Philip II, King of France agree that French gains on English land are recognized
  • October 31: Eleanor Plantagenet, Queen of Castile, daughter of Henry II, dies in Burgos

1215

  • May 3: English barons renounce their allegiance to King John and attack Northampton
  • May 17: The rebellious barons occupy London
  • June 15: The barons force King John to put the Great Seal of the Realm on civil liberties at Runnymede
  • June 19: The Magna Carta is confirmed
  • August 24: Pope Innocent III declares the Magna Carta invalid by triggering the First Barons’ War
  • September: The First Barons’ War begins
  • December: Alexander II, King of Scotland invades northern England
  • Eleanor Plantagenet is born to King John and Isabella of Angouleme

1216

  • January: The English army sacks Berwick-on-Tweed and raids southern Scotland
  • February: A rebellion in East Anglia is suppressed
  • May 21: Louis, Count of Artois invades England in support of the barons. He is proclaimed king at St. Paul’s Cathedral.
  • October 18: King John dies at Newark Castle; Henry III ascends the English throne; William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke is named Regent
  • October 28: Henry III is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
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Henry III

1217

  • May 20: England defeats France at the Battle of Lincoln
  • August 21: England defeats France at the Battle of Dover
  • August 23: England defeats France at the Battle of Sandwich
  • September 12: The Treaty of Kingston upon Thames ends the First Barons’ War; French and Scottish forces leave England and amnesty is granted to rebels
  • October 14: Isabella, Countess of Gloucester dies in Somerset
  • November 6: The Charter of the Forest is issued, supplementing the Magna Carta

1220

  • Spring: Isabella of Angouleme, widow of King John, Hugh X of Lusignan are married
  • May 15: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of King John, is returned to England by Hugh X of Lusignan
  • May 17: Henry III is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey

1221

  • June 21: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of King John, and Alexander II, King of Scotland are married at York Minster
JoanEngland.jpg
Joan of England, Queen of Scotland

1223

  • Henry III is given limited authority over governance
  • Eleanor of Provence is born to Ramon Berenguer V, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy in Aix-en-Provence

1224

  • April 23: Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King John, and William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke are married in London
  • May 5: War breaks out between England and France after Louis VIII, King of France attacks Poitou and Gascony

1225

  • The Magna Carta is confirmed by Henry III
  • Richard Plantagenet, son of King John, is made Earl of Cornwall

1227

  • January: Henry III declares himself of age to take control of his government
  • March: England and France make peace

1230

1235

  • February: Isabel Plantagenet, daughter of King John, and Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor are betrothed
  • March 30: Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, son of King John, and Isabel Marshal are married in Buckinghamshire
  • July 15: Isabel Plantagenet, daughter of King John, and Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor are married in Worms Cathedral
  • August: England and France sign a five-year truce
isabella_of_england_holy_roman_empress
Isabella of England, Holy Roman Empress

1236

  • January 14: Henry III and Eleanor of Provence are married at Canterbury Cathedral
  • September: Alexander II, King of Scotland and Joan Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland, daughter of King John, visit England
Eleonor_Provence.jpg
Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, wife of Henry III

1237

  • September: Alexander II, King of Scotland and Joan Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland visit England

1238

  • January 7: Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of King John, and Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester are married secretly at Westminster Palace
  • March 4: Joan Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland dies at Havering-atte-Bower

1239

  • June 17: Edward Plantagenet is born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence at Westminster

1240

1241

  • Eleanor of Castile is born to Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Joan, Countess of Ponthieu in Castile
  • December 1: Isabel Plantagenet, Holy Roman Empress, daughter of King John, dies in Apulia, Italy

1242

  • June 24: Beatrice Plantagenet is born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence in Bordeaux

1243

  • September: England and France sign a truce
  • November 23: Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, son of King John, and Sanchia of Provence are married at Westminster Abbey

1244

  • August: Henry III blockades Scotland
  • November: The English barons refuse to pay taxes and demand administrative reforms

1245

1246

  • June 4: Isabella of Angouleme, widow of King John, dies at Fontevraud Abbey

1251

  • December 26: Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of Henry III, and Alexander III, King of Scotland are married at York Minster
margaret_plantagenet_queen_of_scotland
Margaret Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Henry III

1253

  • November 25: Katherine Plantagenet is born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence at Westminster

1254

eleonora_eduard1
Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England, wife of Edward I

1255

  • A stillborn daughter is born to Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester in Bordeaux

1257

  • January 13: Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, son of King John, is named King of the Romans
  • May 3: Katherine Plantagenet, daughter of Henry III, dies at Windsor Castle

1259

  • March: Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester, son of Henry III, makes an alliance with the rebels
  • October 15: Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester, son of Henry III, announces he supports the barons’ goals and Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester
  • December 4: The Treaty of Paris is signed, in which Henry III renounces his claim to Normandy to Louis IX, King of France

1260

  • Beatrice Plantagenet, daughter of Henry III, and Jean de Dreux are married
  • August 22: England and Wales reach a truce

1261

  • Katherine Plantagenet is born to Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester
  • June 12: Henry III receives a papal bull releasing him from the Provisions of Oxford
  • July: Henry III regains control of the government

1263

  • January: The Provisions of Westminster is re-issued
  • April: Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, husband of Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King John, seizes control of southern England after Henry III refuses to accept the Provisions of Oxford
  • July 16: Rebels occupy London
  • October 2: Henry III travels to Boulogne to broker peace with Louis IX, King of France; barons refuse to accept its terms

1264

  • January 23: Louis IX, King of France issues the Mise of Amiens, a settlement between Henry III and barons led by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester
  • February: The Second Barons’ War begins
  • May 12 – 14: The Battle of Lewes is fought, during which Henry III and Edward Plantagenet are captured by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester
  • June: Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester summons Parliament in London
  • August 12: Papal legate and Louis IX, King of France condemn the English rebels in the Peace of Canterbury
  • September 5: Katherine Plantagenet, daughter of Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester, dies at Westminster

1265

  • January: Joanna Plantagenet is born to Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester
  • May 28: Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester escapes from captivity
  • June 22: Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester recognizes Llewelyn the Last’s rule over Wales
  • August 4: The Battle of Evesham is fought, in which Edward Plantagenet defeats Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester’s forces, killing Montfort
  • September 7: Joanna Plantagenet, daughter of Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester dies at Westminster

1266

  • June: Henry III besieges the rebels in Kenilworth Castle
  • July: Liverpool Castle is surrendered to Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster
  • July 13: John Plantagenet is born to Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester
  • December 14: Kenilworth Castle surrenders

1267

  • Edmund Plantagenet, son of Henry III, is named Earl of Leicester
  • June: Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester, son of Henry III, captures the Isle of Ely
  • Summer: Henry III and the rebels agree to peace terms
  • November 19: The Statute of Marlborough is passed, confirming the Magna Carta and the Provisions of Westminster

1268

  • Jean de Dreux and Beatrice Plantagenet, daughter of Henry III, inherit the earldom of Richmond
  • May 6: Henry Plantagenet is born to Edward, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester at Windsor Castle

1269

1270

  • August 20: Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester participate in the Ninth Crusade

1271

  • August 3: John Plantagenet, son of Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester dies at Wallingford Castle

1272

  • April: Joan Plantagenet is born to Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Chester in Acre
  • April 2: Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, son of King John, dies at Winchester Castle
  • September 24: Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Chester, son of Henry III, leaves Acre at the end of the Ninth Crusade for Sicily
  • November 16: Henry III dies at Westminster; Edward I ascends the English throne
255px-gal_nations_edward_i
Edward I

1273

  • Edward I pays homage to Philip III, King of France
  • November 24: Alphonso of England is born to Edward I and Eleanor of Castile in Gascony

1274

  • August 2: Edward I returns to England for the first time since ascending the English throne
  • August 19: Edward I is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • October 14: Henry of England, son of Edward I, dies at Guildford

1275

  • Eleanor, Countess of Leicester, daughter of King John, dies at Montargis Abbey
  • Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, refuses to pay homage to Edward I; his betrothed, Eleanor de Montfort, is captured and held prisoner at Windsor Castle to force Gruffudd’s loyalty
  • February 26: Margaret Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Henry III, dies at Cupar Castle
  • March 15: Margaret of England is born to Edward I and Eleanor of Castile at Windsor Castle
  • March 24: Beatrice of England, Countess of Richmond, daughter of Henry III, dies in London
  • April 22: Edward I’s first Parliament meets, passing the first Statute of Westminster

1276

1277

  • November 9: The Treaty of Aberconwy is signed, in which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd agrees to pay homage to Edward I and Wales is divvied up between them

1278

  • June: Berengaria Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, dies at Westminster
  • November 17: All Jews in England imprisoned on suspicion of coin clipping

1279

  • Marguerite of France is born to Philip III, King of France and Maria of Brabant
  • March 11: Mary Plantagenet is born to Edward I and Eleanor of Castile at Woodstock Palace

1280

  • A son is born to Edward I and Eleanor of Castile and dies shortly after his birth

1282

  • March 21: Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, leads a rebellion in Wales
  • August 7: Elizabeth Plantagenet is born to Edward I and Eleanor of Castile in Rhuddlan Castle

1283

  • October 3: Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, is executed in Shrewsbury

1284

  • March 3: The Statute of Rhuddlan extends English law to Wales
  • April 25: Edward Plantagenet is born to Edward I and Eleanor of Castile in Gwynedd, Wales
  • August 19: Alphonso Plantagenet, Earl of Chester, son of Edward I, dies at Windsor Castle

1285

  • August 15: Mary Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, enters the Amesbury convent

1286

  • Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, widow of Henry III, enters the Amesbury convent
  • June 5: Edward I, pays homage to Philip IV, King of France

1290

  • April 30: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, and Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester are married at Westminster Abbey
  • July 8: Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, and Jean of Brabant are married at Westminster Abbey
  • July 18: The Edict of Expolusion is issued, expelling all the Jews from England
  • November 28: Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England, wife of Edward I, dies in Nottinghamshire
eleanor_of_castile_-_geograph-org-uk_-_43729
Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England

1291

  • May 10: Edward I forces the Scottish nobles to recognize his right to determine the Scottish succession
  • June 24: Eleanor of Provence, Queen of England, widow of Henry III, dies in Amesbury
  • Summer: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, son of Edward I, and Blanche of France are betrothed
  • December: Mary Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, takes the veil at the Amesbury convent

1293

  • May 15: The English defeat the French at La Rochelle
  • September 20: Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, and Henry III, Count of Bar are married

1294

  • January: War breaks out between England and France when Philip IV, King of France attempts to seize Gascony from French control
  • May 3: Jean of Brabant and Margaret Plantagenet inherit the duchy of Brabant
  • August 24: The Treaty of Nuremberg is signed, in which England and the Holy Roman Empire align against France

1295

  • Isabelle of France is born to Philip IV, King of France and Jeanne I , Queen of Navarre in Paris
  • July 5: Scotland and France form the Auld Alliance against England

1296

1297

  • January: Joan Plantagenet, Countess of Gloucester, daughter of Edward I, and Ralph de Monthermer are secretly married
  • January 8: Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, and John I, Count of Holland are married at Ipswich
  • February 24: A Parliament assembled at Salisbury refuses to endorse war in Gascony
  • August 24: Edward I leaves England for France to support an invasion of France by Flemish Count Guy of Dampierre
  • October 7: A truce is signed between England and France
  • October 10: Edward I issues the Confirmation of Charters, reconfirming the Magna Carta

1298

  • July 22: England defeats Scotland at the Battle of Falkirk
  • August 29: Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Bar, daughter of Edward I dies

1299

marguerite_of_france
Marguerite of France, Queen of England, second wife of Edward I

1300

  • June 1: Thomas Plantagenet is born to Edward I and Marguerite of France in Yorkshire
  • October 10: Edward I makes a temporary truce with Scotland

1301

  • England secures control of Scotland south of the River Forth
  • February 7: Edward Plantagenet, son of Edward I, is made Prince of Wales
  • August 5: Edmund Plantagenet is born to Edward I and Marguerite of France at Woodstock

1302

  • January 26: Edward I and Robert I, King of Scotland make a truce
  • November 14: Elizabeth Plantagenet, Countess of Holland, daughter of Edward I, and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford are married at Westminster Abbey

1303

  • February 24: Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Roslin
  • May: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, son of Edward I, and Isabelle of France are betrothed
  • May 20: The Treaty of Paris restores Gascony to England from France
  • Winter: Edward I resumes his campaign in Scotland

1304

  • March: The Scottish Parliament submits to English rule

1305

  • August 5: English troops capture the leader of the Scottish resistance
  • August 23: William Wallace, leader of the Scottish resistance, is executed in London
  • September: Edward I issues ordinances for the government of Scotland

1306

  • Eleanor Plantagenet is born to Edward I and Marguerite of France

1307

  • April 23: Joan Plantagenet, Countess of Gloucester, daughter of Edward I, dies in Suffolk
  • July 7: Edward I dies in Cumberland; Edward II ascends the English throne
  • July 11: Word reaches Edward II in London that Edward I died
  • August 6: Edward II’s friend, Piers Gaveston, is made Earl of Cornwall
edward_ii_-_british_library_royal_20_a_ii_f10_detail
Edward II

1308

1310

  • March 16: Edward II agrees to an election of 21 barons as “Lord Ordainers” to reform the government
  • October: England raids southern Scotland

1311

  • Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, dies at Amesbury Abbey
  • August: Parliament completes the Ordinances of 1311, substituting the Lord Ordainers for Edward II as the effective government of the country

1312

  • Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward I, is named Earl of Norfolk
  • January: Edward II moves his court to York
  • June 19: The execution of Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall is ordered by the rebel forces
  • November 13: Edward Plantagenet is born to Edward II and Isabelle of France at Windsor Castle

1313

  • January 13: Robert I, King of Scotland expels English troops from Perth
  • October: Edward II pardons rebellious barons after they apologize publicly

1314

  • May 4: English forces enter Scotland intending to break the Scottish siege of Sterling Castle
  • June 24: Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Bannockburn
  • June 24: Philippa of Hainaut is born to William I, Count of Hainaut and Jeanne of Valois at Valenciennes

1316

  • May 5: Elizabeth Plantagenet, Countess of Hereford, daughter of Edward I, dies in Essex
  • August 15: John Plantagenet is born to Edward II and Isabelle of France at Eltham Palace

1317

1318

1319

  • September 20: An English siege of Berwick-upon-Tweed is abandoned; Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Myton

1321

  • Edmund Plantagenet, son of Edward I, is made Earl of Kent
  • July 5: Joan Plantagenet is born to Edward II and Isabelle of France at the Tower of London

1322

  • March 16: Edward II defeats rebellious barons at the Battle of Boroughbridge

1323

  • March: Edward II makes a 15-year truce between England and Scotland

1325

  • Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, son of Edward I, and Margaret Wake are married
  • March 9: Isabelle of France, Queen of England travels to France to negotiate a truce with Charles IV, King of France
  • September 21: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, son of Edward II, travels to France to pay homage for Gascony
retour_d_isabelle_de_france_en_angleterre
Isabelle of France, Queen of England, wife of Edward II, landing in England with her son, the future Edward III, in 1326

1326

  • The betrothal of Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales and Philippa of Hainaut is arranged by Isabelle of France, Queen of England
  • January 8: Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Norfolk and Alice de Hales are married
  • September 23: Isabelle of France, Queen of England and Roger Mortimer land in Suffolk with an army
  • November 16: Edward II is captured at Neath Abbey
Edward_III_of_England_(Order_of_the_Garter).jpg
Edward III

1327

  • January 20: Edward II abdicates at Kenilworth Castle in favor of his son, Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales
  • January 24: Edward II’s abdication is announced in London
  • January 25: Edward III is proclaimed king of England; Isabelle of France, Queen of England and Roger Mortimer are named regents
  • February 1: Edward III is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • March 31: Charles IV, King of France makes peace with England, returning Gascony
  • August 4: Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Stanhope Park
  • September 21: Edward II dies at Berkeley Castle

1328

  • January 24: Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut are married at York Minster
  • May 1: The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton is signed, in which England recognizes Scotland as an independent nation
  • July 17: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward II, and David of Scotland are married at Berwick-upon-Tweed
  • September 29: Joan of Kent is born to Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, son of Edward I, and Margaret Wake, Countess of Kent at Woodstock Palace
  • October 6: John Plantagenet, son of Edward II, is named Earl of Cornwall
philippa_of_hainault
Philippa of Hainaut, Queen of England

1329

  • June 7: David II and Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward II, inherit the Scottish throne

1330

  • March 4: Philippa of Hainaut is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • March 19: Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, son of Edward I, dies at Winchester Castle
  • June 15: Edward Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at Woodstock Palace
  • October 19: Edward III declares himself of age; Roger Mortimer is arrested
  • November 29: Roger Mortimer is executed
philippa_of_hainault-mini
Philippa of Hainaut, Queen of England

1332

1333

  • March 25: England defeats Scotland at the Battle of Dornock
  • May: David II, King of Scotland flees Scotland for France, allowing the pretender to recognize Edward III as lord of Berwick-upon-Tweed
  • June 8: Edward III seizes the Isle of Mann from Scottish control
  • July: Joan Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Edward II, is sent to France for safety
  • July 19: England defeats Scotland at the Battle of Halidon Hill
  • August 11: England and a Scottish pretender defeat the troops of Robert I, King of Scotland at the Battle of Dupplin Moor
  • December 12: The Scottish pretender flees to England
  • December 19: Joan Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at the Tower of London

1334

  • Margaret Plantagenet, Duchess of Brabant, daughter of Edward I, dies in Belgium
  • February: Berwick is ceded to England
  • June: The southern counties of Scotland are submitted to England and Edward III is recognized as king

1335

  • July 30: Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Boroughmuir
  • November 30: Scotland defeats England at the Battle Culblean

1336

  • English forces burn Aberdeen
  • April 4: Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Norfolk and Mary de Brewes are married
  • August: England bans wool exports to Flanders
  • September 13: John Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall dies in Perth

1337

  • February 16: William Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at Hatfield
  • March 2: William Plantagenet, son of Edward III, dies at York Minster
  • March 17: Edward Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is named Duke of Cornwall
  • May 24: Philip VI, King of France confiscates Gascony from English control
  • August: English forces relieve Stirling Castle, ending England’s campaign
  • October: Edward III rejects Philip VI, King of France’s claim to the French throne

1338

  • September 5: Louis VI, Holy Roman Emperor appoints Edward III a vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire and supports his claim to the French throne under the Treaty of Koblenz
  • September 20: Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Norfolk, son of Edward I, dies
  • November 29: Lionel Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut in Antwerp

1339

  • December 3: England aligns with Flanders against France

1340

  • January 25: Edward III is declared king of France
  • March 6: John Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut in Ghent
  • June 24: The French navy is defeated at the Battle of Sluys
  • September 25: A temporary truce between England and France is agreed upon

1341

  • June 5: Edmund Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut in Hertfordshire

1342

  • March: Blanche Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at the Tower of London and dies shortly afterwards
  • August 18: The English defeat the Genoese at the Battle of Best
  • September: John Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is named Earl of Richmond
  • September: The Battle of Morlaix between the French and the English is indecisive
  • October: England conquers most of Brittany

1343

  • May 12: Edward Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is named Prince of Wales

1344

  • October 10: Mary Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut in Hampshire

1345

  • October 12: England defeats France at the Battle of Auberoche

1346

  • April: France invades Gascony
  • June 9: England defeats the Bretons at the Battle of St Pol de Leon
  • Summer: Thomas Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at Windsor Castle
  • July 20: Margaret Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at Windsor Castle
  • August 24: England defeats the French at the Battle of Blanchetaque
  • August 26: England defeats France at the Battle of Crecy
  • October 17: David II, King of Scotland is taken prisoner following the Battle of Neville’s Cross

1347

  • Lionel Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is betrothed to Elizabeth de Burgh and named Earl of Ulster
  • August 4: England captures Calais
  • September 28: England and France reach a temporary truce

1348

  • Pope Clement VI annuls the marriage of Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury and William Montagu, Earl of Salisbury due to her prior marriage to Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent
  • Spring: William Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at Windsor Castle
  • April 23: Edward III creates the Order of the Garter
  • June: The Black Death reaches England
  • July 1: Joan Plantagenet, daughter of Edward III, dies
  • September: Thomas and William Plantagenet, sons of Edward III, die
  • November: The Black Death reaches London

1350

  • April 8: France is defeated by England at the Battle of Talliebourg
  • August 29: England defeats Castile in the Battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer

1351

  • November 15: Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of Edward III, calls of her wedding to Bernard d’Albret

1352

  • Lionel Plantagenet, Earl of Ulster, son of Edward III, and Elizabeth de Burgh are married
  • August: England defeats France at the Battle of Mauron

1355

  • January 7: Thomas Plantagenet is born to Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut at Woodstock Palace
  • April 22: Eleanor Plantagenet, Countess of Guelders, daughter of Edward II, dies in Loremo
  • August: Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Nesbit Moor
  • August 16: Philippa of Ulster is born to Lionel Plantagenet, Earl of Ulster and Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster
  • October 5: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, son of Edward III, begins campaigns in southern France

1356

  • January 20: The Scottish pretender defers the kingship to Edward III
  • September 19: England defeats France at the Battle of Poitiers; John II, King of France is captured

1357

  • March 22: A two-year truce is declared between France and England
  • November 6: David II, King of Scotland is released from captivity and returns to Scotland; Joan Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Edward II, decides to remain in England

1358

  • August 22: Isabelle of France, Queen of England dies at Castle Rising

1359

1360

1361

  • July 3: Mary Plantagenet, daughter of Edward III, and Jean IV, Duke of Brittany are married
  • November: Lionel Plantagenet, Earl of Ulster is named Duke of Clarence
  • October 1: Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Edward III, dies
  • October 10: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales and Joan of Kent are married at Windsor Castle
  • September: Mary Plantagenet, Duchess of Brittany, daughter of Edward III, dies

1362

  • September 7: Joan Plantagenet, Queen of Scotland dies at Hertford Castle
  • November: John Plantagenet, Earl of Richmond and Blanche of Lancaster, Countess of Richmond inherit the duchy of Lancaster
  • November: Lionel Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is created Duke of Clarence

1363

  • June 29: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, son of Edward III, takes control of Aquitaine
  • November: David II, King of Scotland reaches an agreement with English in which Edward III is named his heir

1364

  • March 4: Scottish Parliament rejects Edward III’s rights to the Scottish throne

1365

  • January 27: Edward Plantagenet is born to Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales and Joan of Kent, Princess of Wales at the Chateau d’Angouleme
  • June 22: England and Castile form an alliance
  • July 27: Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of Edward III, and Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy are married at Windsor Castle

1366

  • May 11: Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy is made Earl of Bedford
  • May 11: Anne of Bohemia is born to Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Elizabeth of Pomerania in Prague

1367

  • January 6: Richard Plantagenet is born to Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales and Joan of Kent, Princess of Wales in Bordeaux
  • February: England sides with Pedro of Castile against Henry II, King of Castile
  • April 3: England defeats Franco-Castilian forces at the Battle of Najera
  • April 15: Henry of Lancaster is born to John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster and Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster at Bolingbroke Castle

1368

  • Philippa of Ulster, daughter Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence and Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March are married at Reading Abbey
  • January 30: Barons in English-held France object to English taxes and appeal to Charles V, King of France
  • June: Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence and Violante Visconti are married in Milan
  • September 12: Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster, wife of John of Gaunt, dies in Tutbury
  • October 7: Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence dies in Milan

1369

  • May 21: Charles V, King of France declares war on England
  • June 3: Edward III, claims the throne of France
  • August 15: Philippa of Hainaut dies at Windsor Castle
  • August 24: Philippa of Ulster, daughter of Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence and Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March are married
  • September: England raids Picardy and Normandy
  • November 30: Charles V, King of France seizes English land in France

1370

  • Jeanne of Navarre is born to Charles II, King of Navarre and Jeanne of Valois
  • September 19: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, son of Edward III, attacks Limoges
  • September 20: Edward Plantagenet, son of Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, dies in Bordeaux

1371

  • September 21: John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, and Constance of Castile are married in Guienne

1372

  • February 9: John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, and Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster enter London as King and Queen of Castile
  • June 22: The English fleet is defeated at the Battle of La Rochelle by a Castilian-French fleet
  • July 11: Edmund Plantagenet, son of Edward III, and Isabella of Castile are married at Wallingford Castle
  • August 7: Poitiers surrenders to the French
  • December 1: France takes control of Poitou

1373

  • John Beaufort is born to John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster and his mistress, Katherine Swynford in Lincolnshire
  • April 28: France re-captures most of Brittany
  • June 16: England and Portugal sign the Treaty of London
  • August: John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster launches an invasion of France

1374

  • April 11: Roger Mortimer is born to Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Philippa of Ulster, Countess of March in Usk

1375

  • Henry Beaufort is born to John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, and his mistress, Katherine Swynford in Lincolnshire
  • The Treaty of Bruges is signed, in which England’s rule over Calais, parts of Gascony and four forts in Brittany is confirmed
  • July 20: Richard of York is born to Edmund Plantagenet, Duke of York and Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York at Conisburgh Castle
edward_iii_black_prince_14thc
Edward III and his eldest son, Edward, Prince of Wales

1376

  • Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward III, and Eleanor de Bohun are married
  • April 28: The Good Parliament begins
  • June 7: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales makes Edward III and John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster swear to support his son, Richard Plantagenet
  • June 8: Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales dies at Westminster
  • July 10: The Good Parliament is dissolved
  • November 30: Richard Plantagenet, son of Edward Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, is created Prince of Wales
  • December 25: Richard Plantagenet is presented before Parliament by John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, who promises to uphold his right to the throne

1377

  • Joan Beaufort is born to John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster and his mistress, Katherine Swynford
  • January 27: The Bad Parliament begins
  • February 20: Riots break out in London
  • March 2: The Bad Parliament is dissolved
  • June 21: Edward III dies at Richmond Palace; Richard II ascends the English throne
  • July 16: Richard II is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • Summer: The Peasant Revolt
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Richard II

1379

1380

  • January 16: Richard II is declared of-age by Parliament
  • Summer: Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward III, leads a raid of France
  • July 27: Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, and Mary de Bohun are married at Arundel Castle

1381

  • Joan Beaufort is born to John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster and his mistress, Katherine Swynford in Lincolnshire
  • January: Brittany surrenders to France, while England retains control of Brest
  • May 30: The Peasants’ Revolt breaks out
  • July 15: The leader of the Peasants’ Revolt is executed in front of Richard II
  • December: Anne of Bohemia arrives in London

1382

  • January 5: Philippa of Ulster, Countess of March, daughter of Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence dies in Cork, Ireland
  • January 14: Richard II and Anne of Bohemia are married at Westminster Abbey
  • January 22: Anne of Bohemia is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
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Anne of Bohemia, Queen of England

1385

  • August 6: Edmund Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is made Duke of York and Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward III, is made Duke of Gloucester
  • August 7: Joan of Kent, Princess of Wales dies at Wallingford Castle
  • August 31: Richard II begins an invasion of Scotland; Holyrood and Edinburgh are burned

1386

  • March 8: Richard II recognizes John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, as King of Castile and grants him control of all royal lands
  • May 9: Richard II and Juan I, King of Portugal ratify the Treaty of Windsor
  • August 9: Henry of Lancaster is born to Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby and Mary de Bohun, Countess of Derby at Monmouth Castle
  • October: The Wonderful Parliament is held
  • October 2: Jeanne of Navarre and Jean IV, Duke of Brittany are married
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John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster

1387

  • Thomas of Lancaster is born to Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby and Mary de Bohun, Countess of Derby in London
  • February 14: Philippa of Lancaster and Juan I, King of Portugal are married at the Cathedral of Porto
  • November 14: The Lord Appellant raise arms against Richard II and demand the arrest of members of the royal court
  • December 20: The Lord Appellant defeat the army of Richard II and imprison him until he agrees to replace his councilors at court

1388

  • February 3: The royal court is convicted of treason by the Merciless Parliament
  • October 7: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, son of Philippa of Ulster, Countess of March and Eleanor Holland are married
  • John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster gives up his claim to the Castilian throne; his daughter by Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster is married to the heir of Henry II, King of Castile

1389

  • May 3: Richard II regains control of the government
  • June 20: John of Lancaster is born to Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby and Mary de Bohun, Countess of Derby
  • July 18: The Truce of Lelinghem is signed, in which England and France make peace
  • November 9: Isabelle of Valois is born to Charles VI, King of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen of France in Paris

1390

  • October 3: Humphrey of Lancaster is born to Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby and Mary de Bohun, Countess of Derby

1391

  • Joan Beaufort, daughter of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, and Robert Ferrers, Baron Boteler of Wem are married in Anjou
  • November 6: Edmund Mortimer is born to Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Eleanor Holland, Countess of Holland in Westmeath

1392

  • Blanche of Lancaster is born to Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby and Mary de Bohun, Countess of Derby at Peterborough Castle
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Richard II and Anne of Bohemia

1394

1395

  • May 15: Richard II leaves Ireland

1396

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Richard II and Isabelle of Valois

1397

  • January 8: Isabelle of Valois, wife of Richard II, is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • February 3: Joan Beaufort, Lady Boteler of Wem and Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland are married
  • February 10: John Beaufort, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster is made Earl of Somerset
  • September: Parliament condemns the Lord Appellant
  • September 8: Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester, son of Edward III, dies in Calais
  • September 29: John Beaufort, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, is created Marquess of Somerset
  • October 1: John Beaufort, Marquess of Somerset, son John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster and Margaret Holland are married

1398

  • January 27: Parliament annuls the acts of 1388 Parliament
  • September 16: After stopping a duel, Richard II banishes Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford and Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk

The House of Lancaster

1399

  • February 3: John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, dies at Leicester Castle
  • March 18: Richard II blocks Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford from inheriting his father’s lands
  • June 1: Richard II travels to Ireland
  • July: Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford returns to England and begins a military campaign to take control of Lancaster
  • August: Upon returning to England, Richard II is taken prisoner by the followers of Henry, Duke of Lancaster at Conway Castle
  • September 29: Richard II abdicates in favor of Henry, Duke of Lancaster
  • September 30: Parliament accepts Henry, Duke of Lancaster as the new king of England
  • October 13: Henry IV is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • October 15: Henry of Lancaster, son of Henry IV, is created Prince of Wales
  • October: Henry IV rescinds the title given to his half-brother, John Beaufort, and he is demoted to Earl of Somerset
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Henry IV

1400

  • January: Henry IV quells the Epiphany Rising
  • February 14: Richard II is executed at Pontefract Castle
  • August: England occupies Edinburgh, but fail to capture Edinburgh Castle
  • September 16: Owain Glyndwr is proclaimed Prince of Wales and begins attacking English strongholds in northeast Wales

1401

1402

  • June 22: The Battle of Nesbit Moor is fought, in which England defeats Wales
  • June 22: The Battle of Bryn Glas is fought, in which Wales defeats England
  • August 1: Edmund Plantagenet, Duke of York, son of Edward III, dies in Hertfordshire
  • September 14: The Battle of Humbleton Hill, in which England defeats Scotland
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Jeanne of Navarre, Queen of England

1403

1404

  • January 14: Henry IV grants Parliament the power to appoint royal councilors and hold them to account for expenditure
  • June 14: Owain Glyndwr declares himself Prince of Wales and allies himself with the French

1405

  • March 11: The Battle of Grosmont is fought, in which England defeats Wales
  • May 15: The English defeat the Welsh at the Battle of Usk
  • June 8: Richard Scrope, Archbishop of York is the first English prelate to suffer judicial execution following a failed rebellion in northern England

1406

1407

  • October: Henry of Lancaster, Prince of Wales besieges Welsh rebels at Aberystwyth

1408

  • Richard of York, Earl of Cambridge, son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, and Anne Mortimer are married
  • February 19: The Battle of Branham Moor is fought, in which a rebellion from the Percy family is suppressed in the North
  • September: Henry of Lancaster, Prince of Wales retakes Aberystwyth from Owain Glyndwr

1409

1410

1411

  • Thomas Beaufort, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, is named Earl of Dorset
  • September 21: Richard of York is born to Richard of York, Earl of Cambridge and Anne Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge
  • November 30: Henry IV dismisses Henry of Lancaster, Prince of Wales from the royal council

1412

1413

  • March 20: Henry IV dies at Westminster; Henry V ascends the English throne
  • April 9: Henry V is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • December: The body of Richard II is re-interred at Westminster Abbey
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Henry V

1414

  • Richard of York, son of Edmund Plantagenet, Duke of York is named Earl of Cambridge
  • John and Humphrey of Lancaster, sons of Henry IV are named the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester
  • August: Henry V claims the French throne

1415

1416

  • Thomas Beaufort, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, is named duke of Exeter
  • May 1: French fleets blockade Harfleur
  • August 15: English forces relieve Harfleur

1417

  • July 23: England launches a second campaign in France
  • September 8: England conquers Caen

1418

  • February 18: England captures Falaise
  • July 30: The English siege of Rouen begins
  • August 22: The English capture Cherbourg
  • November 25: Henry Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset dies in Rouen

1419

  • January 19: Rouen falls to the English
  • July 30: England captures Pontoise
  • December 25: Philippe, Duke of Burgundy aligns with England against France

1420

  • May 21: Henry V and Charles VI, King of France agree to the Treaty of Troyes, in which Henry V is named the heir to the French throne
  • June 2: Henry V and Katherine of Valois are married at Troyes Cathedral
  • November 17: France surrenders Melun to England
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The marriage of Henry V and Katherine of Valois at Troyes

1421

1422

  • May 2: Meaux is surrendered by France to England
  • August 31: Henry V dies at Vincennes; Henry VI ascends the English throne
  • October 21: Henry VI is declared King of France after the death of Charles VI, King of France
  • October 30: Charles VII, King of France declares himself king in defiance of the Treaty of Troyes

1423

  • England allies with Burgundy and Brittany against France
  • January: Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Jacqueline, Countess are Hainaut are married in secret in London
  • May 13: John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford and Anne of Burgundy are married at Troyes
  • July 31: England defeats France and Scotland at the Battle of Cravant
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John, Duke of Bedford

1424

  • Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville are betrothed
  • April: James I, King of Scotland is finally ransomed from English custody. James and Joan Beaufort, daughter of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset are married in London and return to Scotland.
  • August 17: The English defeat the French at the Battle of Verneuil
  • October 16: Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester invades Hainaut on behalf of his wife, Jacqueline of Hainaut, Duchess of Gloucester
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Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland

1425

1426

  • March 6: The English defeat the French at the Battle of St. James
  • May 24: Henry Beaufort, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, is made a Cardinal by Pope Martin VI
  • December 31: Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, dies
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Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester

1428

  • January: The marriage of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, son of Henry IV, and Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut is annulled
  • January: Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, son of Henry IV, and Eleanor Cobham are married in secret

1429

  • Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and Cecily Neville, daughter of Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland, are married
  • May 8: The English surrender Orleans to the French and Joan of Arc
  • June 12: The French defeat the English at the Battle of Jargeau
  • June 15: The French defeat the English at the Battle of Beaugency
  • June 18: The French defeat the English at the Battle of Patay
  • November 6: Henry VI is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
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Cecily Neville, Duchess of York

1430

1431

  • Jasper Tudor is born to Owen Tudor and Katherine of Valois at Hatfield
  • May 30: Joan of Arc is executed by the English in Rouen
  • October 2: Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset dies in Louviers
  • December 16: Henry VI is crowned king of France at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris
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Coronation of Henry VI in Paris

1432

  • November: Owen Tudor is born to Owen Tudor and Katherine of Valois at Westminster Abbey

1433

1435

  • September 14: John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, son of Henry IV, dies in Rouen
  • September 21: The Congress of Arras concludes; England and Burgundy’s alliance is ended

1436

  • January 26: Henry Beaufort is born to Edmund Beaufort, Count of Mortain and Eleanor Beauchamp, Countess of Mortain
  • April 13: The French retake Paris from the English
  • December: Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford and Richard Woodville are married in Rouen
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Katherine of Valois, Queen of England

1437

  • January 3: Katherine of Valois, widow of Henry V, dies at Bermondsey Abbey
  • February 12: England captures Pontoise
  • June 10: Jeanne of Navarre dies in London
  • November 13: Henry VI comes of age and takes over control of his government

1438

  • John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, is released from French imprisonment
  • February: Joan of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York and dies young

1439

  • John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp are married
  • Edmund Beaufort is born to Edmund Beaufort, Count of Mortain and Margaret Holland, Countess of Mortain
  • August 10: Anne of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York in London
  • September 13: Meaux surrenders to the French, leaving English control

1440

  • Elizabeth Woodville is born to Richard Woodville and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford, widow of John, Duke of Bedford [exact date of birth unknown]
  • September 12: Henry VI founds Eton College
  • November 13: Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland, daughter of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, dies in Yorkshire

1441

  • February 10: Henry of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York is born at Hatfield and dies soon after
  • April 2: Henry VI founds King’s College, Cambridge
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Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester

1442

  • January 19: Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, wife of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is convicted of treason and witchcraft
  • April 28: Edward of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York in Rouen

1443

  • John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset is named Duke of Somerset
  • April 23: England signs a perpetual truce with Burgundy
  • May 17: Edmund of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York in Rouen
  • May 31: Margaret Beaufort is born to John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset at Bletsoe Castle
  • August: Eight thousand English troops under John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset land at Cherbourg for an ill-fated campaign

1444

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Marguerite of Anjou

1445

  • April 23: Henry VI and Marguerite of Anjou are married at Titchfield Abbey
  • May 30: Marguerite of Anjou is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • July 14: Negotiations for a peace treaty between England and France begin in London
  • December: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York is recalled from Normandy

1446

  • May 3: Margaret of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York at Fotheringhay Castle
  • June 26: Henry VI re-asserts his claim to Brittany

1447

  • Anne of York, daughter of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter are married
  • February 18: Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, son of Henry IV, is arrested for treason at Bury-St-Edmunds
  • February 23: Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, son of Henry IV dies
  • April 11: Cardinal Henry Beaufort, son of John Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, dies in Winchester
  • July 7: William of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York and dies young
  • December 9: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York is appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

1448

  • March 11: England cedes Maine to France
  • March 16: Negotiations over England’s claim to Brittany fall apart
  • October 23: Scotland defeats England at the Battle of Sark
  • November 7: John of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York and dies young

1449

1450

  • January: Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and John de la Pole are betrothed
  • May 2: William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk is murdered following his conviction of treason and banishment
  • June – July: Jack Cade’s rebellion begins in Kent and Sussex
  • August 12: Cherbourg falls to the French, ending all English holdings in Normandy
  • September: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York marches to London at the head of an army against traitors
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Henry VI

1451

  • Thomas of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York and dies young
  • February 7: John de la Pole and Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset are married
  • June: Henry VI cancels all land grants made under his name at the behest of Parliament
  • June 30: Bordeaux surrenders to the French
  • August 21: Bayonne surrenders to the French, ending English control of Gascony
  • October 2: Isabel Neville is born to Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick at Warwick Castle

1452

  • March 3: The royal and York armies meet at Dartford; Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York yields and his pardoned by Henry VI
  • October 2: Richard of York is born to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York at Fotheringhay Castle

1453

  • Elizabeth Woodville and John Grey are married
  • July 17: The Battle of Castillon is fought, in which the English are defeated by the French
  • August: Henry VI goes insane at his hunting lodge in Clarendon
  • October 13: Edward of Lancaster is born to Henry VI and Marguerite of Anjou at Westminster
  • October 19: The French recapture Bordeaux from the English
  • November: Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset is imprisoned in the Tower of London

1454

  • Edward and Edmund of York, sons of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York are named the Earls of March and Rutland
  • January: Henry VI resumes control of the government; Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset is freed from captivity
  • March 15: Edward of Lancaster, son of Henry VI is named Prince of Wales
  • March 27: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York is named Protector of the Real in the stead of Henry VI
  • September 4: Henry Stafford is born to Humphrey, Earl of Stafford and Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford
  • December 25: Henry VI recovers from his mental illness

1455

  • Thomas Grey is born to John Grey and Elizabeth Woodville, Dame Grey at Groby Old Hall
  • May 22: The First Battle of St. Albans is fought in which the forces of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York defeat the royal army; Henry VI is captured after the battle
  • May 22: Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, dies at the First Battle of St. Albans
  • November 1: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, son of Katherine of Valois and Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset are married
  • November 19: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York is reinstated as Regent
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Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset

1456

  • February 25: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York is dismissed as Regent
  • August 17: Marguerite of Anjou moves the royal court to Coventry
  • November 1: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond dies at Carmarthen Castle

1457

1458

  • Elizabeth of York, daughter of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and John de la Pole are married
  • January 3: Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Henry Stafford are married
  • March 25: A formal reconciliation ceremony is held between the Lancastrians and Yorkists at St Paul’s Cathedral

1459

  • September 23: The Battle of Blore Heath is fought, in which the Yorkists defeat Lancaster
  • October 12: The Battle of Ludford Bridge is fought, in which the Lancastrians defeat York; Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York flees for Ireland
  • November 10: Parliament is held at Coventry and Yorkists are condemned as traitors
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Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York

1460

  • June 26: Edward of York, Earl of March and Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick land in England and march on London
  • July 10: The Battle of Northampton is fought in which York defeats Lancaster; Henry VI is captured and Marguerite of Anjou Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales escape to Wales and then Scotland
  • October 10: Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York claims the English throne
  • October 24: The Act of Accord is passed in which Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York is named heir to Henry VI
  • December 30: The Battle of Wakefield is fought, in which Lancaster defeats York and Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Edmund of York, Earl of Rutland are killed

The House of York

1461

  • February 2: The Battle of Mortimer’s Cross is fought, in which York defeats Lancaster; Owen Tudor, widower of Katherine of Valois, is executed after the battle
  • February 17: The Second Battle of St. Albans is fought in which Lancaster defeats York; Henry VI is taken control of Marguerite of Anjou; John Grey, husband of Elizabeth Woodville, dies
  • March 4: Edward, Duke of York is declared Edward IV
  • March 29: The Battle of Towton is fought, in which York defeats Lancaster. Marguerite of Anjou and Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales escape to Scotland
  • April 25: Henry VI cedes Berwick upon Tweed to Scotland in exchange for their support
  • June 28: Edward IV is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • George and Richard of York, sons of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York are named the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester
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Edward IV

1462

  • April: Marguerite of Anjou and Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales escape from Scotland to France
  • June 23: Marguerite of Anjou promises to cede Calais to France in exchange for military help
  • October 25: Marguerite of Anjou leads an invasion of Northumberland with the help of the French. The invasion ultimately fails and Marguerite of Anjou and Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales leave England for Scotland

1463

  • Elizabeth of York, daughter of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and John de la Pole are named Duke and Duchess of Suffolk
  • August: Marguerite of Anjou and Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales leave Scotland for France
  • October 8: The Truce of Hesdin is signed, in which Louis XI, King of France recognizes Edward IV as king of England

1464

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The marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1465

1466

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Elizabeth Woodville

1467

  • August 11: Mary of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Windsor Castle

1468

  • July 3: Margaret of York, daughter of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Charles, Duke of Burgundy are married at Sluys

1469

  • March 20: Cecily of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Westminster
  • July: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and George, Duke of Clarence rebel against Edward IV
  • July 26: The Battle of Edgecote Moor is fought, in which Lancaster defeats York
  • July 29: Edward IV is arrested and imprisoned by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
  • August 12: Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers is executed by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick at Kenilworth Castle
  • September: Edward IV is released
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Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick

1470

  • March 12: The Battle of Losecoat Field is fought, in which York defeats Lancaster
  • September 13: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and George, Duke of Clarence rebel against Edward IV, who is forced to flee to Burgundy with Richard, Duke of Gloucester
  • July: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Marguerite of Anjou form an alliance against Edward IV; Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales and Anne Neville are betrothed
  • October 3: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick releases Henry VI and declares him king of England once more
  • November 2: Edward of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Westminster
  • December 13: Edward of Lancaster and Anne Neville are married at Angers Cathedral
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Edward IV, Elizabeth Woodville and the future Edward V

1471

  • March 14: Edward IV lands in England with an army
  • April 11: London surrenders to Edward IV
  • April 14: The Battle of Barnet is fought, in which Edward IV defeats Lancastrian forces; Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick is killed in battle
  • April 14: Marguerite of Anjou lands in England with Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales and Anne Neville, Princess of Wales
  • May 4: The Battle of Tewkesbury is fought, in which Edward IV defeats Lancaster; Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales and Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset are killed and Marguerite of Anjou is taken prisoner
  • May: Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke and Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond flee England for Brittany
  • May 21: Henry VI is executed at the Tower of London
  • July 3: Richard, Duke of Gloucester is named Constable and Admirable of England with power over northern England
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Beheading of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset after the Battle of Tewkesbury

1472

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Anne Neville

1473

  • August 14: Margaret of Clarence is born to George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence at Farleigh Hungerford Castle
  • August 17: Richard of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville in Shrewsbury

1474

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Elizabeth Woodville and her daughters

1475

  • Thomas Grey is named Marquess of Dorset
  • February 25: Edward of Clarence is born to George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville at Warwick Castle
  • July 4: Edward IV lands in Calais in support of Burgundy against France
  • August 29: The Treaty of Picquigny is signed, in which England and France make peace
  • November 2: Anne of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Westminster

1476

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Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence

1477

  • March: George of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Windsor Castle

1478

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George, Duke of Clarence

1479

  • March: George of York, Duke of Bedford, son of Edward IV dies at Windsor Castle
  • August 14: Katherine of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Eltham Palace

1480

  • August 1: The Treaty of Perpetual Friendship is signed between England and Burgundy
  • November 10: Bridget of York is born to Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville at Eltham Palace

1482

  • May 23: Mary of York, daughter of Edward IV dies at Greenwich Palace
  • August 1: Richard, Duke of Gloucester invades Scotland and captures Edinburgh
  • August 24: Scotland surrenders Berwick-upon-Tweed to Richard, Duke of Gloucester
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Edward IV

1483

  • April 9: Edward IV dies at Westminster; Edward V ascends the English throne and Richard, Duke of Gloucester is named Lord Protector
  • June 13: Richard III has William, Lord Hastings executed at the Tower of London
  • June 20: Parliament declares Edward V illegitimate; Richard III ascends the English throne
  • June 25: Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers and Richard Grey is executed at Pontefract Castle
  • July 6: Richard III and Anne Neville are crowned King and Queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • August: Edward V and Richard, Duke of York are last seen at the Tower of London
  • September 8: Edward of Gloucester, son of Richard III is made Prince of Wales at York Minster
  • October: A rebellion led by Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham is put down by Richard III
  • November 2: Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham is executed in Salisbury on the orders of Richard III
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Richard III

1484

  • Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV and Thomas, Lord Scrope are married
  • Anne of York, daughter of Edward IV and Thomas Howard are betrothed
  • April 9: Edward of Gloucester, Prince of Wales, son of Richard III dies at Middleham
  • September 21: The Treaty of Nottingham is signed between England and Scotland
  • December: Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond pledges to marry Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV

The House of Tudor

1485

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Henry VII

1486

  • January 18: Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV are married at Westminster Abbey
  • April: The Stafford and Lovell rebellion is put down by Henry VII
  • September 20: Arthur Tudor is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Winchester

1487

  • Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV and John, Lord Welles are married
  • May 24: Lambert Simnel is crowned Edward VI in Dublin, Ireland, claiming to be Edward of Clarence
  • June 16: The Battle of Stoke Field is fought, in which a rebellion led by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln and Francis, Lord Lovell is defeated by Henry VII
  • November: Margaret of Clarence, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence, and Sir Richard Pole are married
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Elizabeth of York, Queen of England

1488

  • November 25: Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey

1489

  • February 14: The Treaty of Redon is signed, in which England allies with Brittany against France
  • March 26: The Treaty of Medina del Campo is signed in which England allies with Spain and Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII and Katherine of Aragon are betrothed
  • November 28: Margaret Tudor is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Westminster
  • November 29: Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII, is named Prince of Wales

1491

  • June 28: Henry Tudor is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Greenwich Palace
  • November: Perkin Warbeck lands in England to take the throne, claiming to be Richard, Duke of York, son of Edward IV
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Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, and their children

1492

  • Edward of Clarence, son of George, Duke of Clarence is named Earl of Warwick
  • June 8: Elizabeth Woodville dies at Bermondsey Abbey
  • June 28: Elizabeth Tudor is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Richmond Palace
  • November 3: The Peace of Etaples is signed between England and France, ending French support for Perkin Warbeck

1494

  • May: Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor recognizes Perkin Warbeck as the rightful king of England at the behest of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy, daughter of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
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Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby

1495

1496

  • March 5: Henry VII issues letter patent to John Cabot and his sons to discover “unknown lands”
  • March 18: Mary Tudor is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Sheen Palace
  • September 21 – 25: James IV, King of Scotland invades Northumberland in support of Perkin Warbeck

1497

  • May 18: Katherine Woodville, Duchess of Bedford dies
  • September 7: Perkin Warbeck lands at Whitesand Bay in England
  • September 10: Perkin Warbeck is proclaimed king of England in Bodmin, England
  • September 30: The Treaty of Ayton is signed between England and Scotland
  • October 5: Perkin Warbeck is captured at Beaulieu Abbey in Hampshire
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Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales

1499

  • February 21: Edmund Tudor is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Greenwich Palace and made Duke of Somerset
  • May 19: The first proxy of wedding between Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales and Katherine of Aragon is celebrated
  • November 23: Perkin Warbeck is executed in Tyburn
  • November 28: Edward of Clarence, Earl of Warwick, son of George, Duke of Clarence is executed at the Tower of London

1500

  • March 12: Reginald Pole is born to Sir Richard Pole and Margaret of Clarence, Lady Pole at Stourton Castle. He was one of five children born to the couple.
  • June 19: Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset, son of Henry VII dies
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Katherine of Aragon, Queen of England

1501

1502

  • Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV, and Thomas Kyme are married
  • January 24: The Treaty of Perpetual Peace is signed between England and Scotland; both countries also sign a marriage agreement between Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII and James IV, King of Scotland
  • April 2: Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VII, dies at Ludlow Castle
  • May 6: James Tyrell is executed for murdering Edward V and Richard, Duke of York
  • June 19: The Treaty of Aachen is signed between England and the Holy Roman Empire
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The mourning of Elizabeth of York, Queen of England

1503

1504

  • February 18: Henry Tudor, son of Henry VII is named Prince of Wales
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Richmond Palace

1505

  • June 28: Marriage between Henry Tudor, Prince of Wales and Katherine of Aragon, Dowager Princess of Wales is postponed when Spain fails to pay her full dowry

1506

  • April 24: Edmund de la Pole, son of Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk is imprisoned as a rival claimant to the throne

1507

1508

1509

  • April 21: Henry VII dies at Richmond Palace; Henry VIII ascends the English throne
  • June 11: Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon are married at Greenwich Palace
  • June 24: Henry VIII is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • June 29: Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby dies in London
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Henry VIII, c. 1509

1510

  • January: Erasmus begins his period of residence at Cambridge University
  • January 31: A stillborn daughter is born to Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon
  • August 17: Henry VIII has two of his father’s councilors, Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley, executed

1511

1512

  • Thomas Howard and Elizabeth Stafford, daughter of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham are married
  • Katherine Parr is born to Thomas Parr and Maud Green, Lady Parr at Blackfriars
  • April 10: James Stuart is born to James IV, King of Scotland and Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland is born at Linlithgow Palace
  • August 10: The English fleet secures a victory at the Battle of Saint-Mathieu over the French-Breton fleet
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Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland

1513

  • April 5: The Treaty of Mechlin is signed between Henry VIII, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, King of Aragon and Pope Leo X
  • April 30: Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, son of John de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk and Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk, is executed
  • July: Scotland declares war on England, in breach of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace
  • August 16: The Battle of Guinegate is fought, in which England defeats France
  • September 9: The Battle of Flodden is fought in which England defeats Scotland and James IV, King of Scotland is killed
  • September 24: The city of Tournai surrenders England
  • November: A son is born to Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon and dies soon after

1514

  • April: England and France declare a truce in the War of the League of Cambria
  • August 6: Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland and Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus are married in Kinnoull Church
  • August 7: England and France conclude a peace treaty in the War of the League of Cambria
  • September 15: Thomas Wolsey is appointed Archbishop of York
  • October 9: Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII and Louis XII, King of France are married at Abbeville

1515

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Mary Tudor, Queen of France and Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk

1516

  • February 18: Mary Tudor is born to Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon at Greenwich Palace

1517

  • Bridget of York, daughter of Edward IV dies at Dartford Priory
  • July 16: Frances Brandon is born to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, Queen of France

1518

  • October 3: The Treaty of London is signed by England, France, the Holy Roman Empire, the Vatican, Spain, Burgundy and the Netherlands against the Ottoman Empire
  • November 10: A daughter is born to Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon who dies soon after

1519

  • May: Henry VIII stands as a candidate in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. He is unsuccessful and his nephew by marriage is eventually elected Charles V.

1520

  • May 26 – May 31: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits England
  • June 7 – June 24: Henry VIII and Francis I, King of France meet at the Field of the Cloth of Gold
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The Field of the Cloth of Gold

1521

  • May 17: Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, son of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham and Katherine Woodville, Duchess of Bucking and Bedford, is executed on the orders of Henry VIII at the Tower of London
  • September 25: The Treaty of Bruges is signed in which Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Cardinal Thomas Wolsey agree to declare war on France in two years

1522

  • June 19: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits England to sign the Treaty of Windsor and promising a joint invasion of France with England.
  • July: The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy

1523

  • English forces under the command of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, son of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Tilney, Countess of Surrey, attack Scotland
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Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII

1524

  • May 25: Henry VIII and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor form in support of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon against Francis I, King of France

1525

  • Katherine Howard is born to Edmund Howard and Joyce Culpeper, Lady Howard at Lambeth
  • June 16: Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount is created Duke of Richmond and Somerset
  • August 14: England and France reach peace
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Katherine of Aragon, Queen of England

1527

1528

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Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

1529

  • May – July: Cardinal Thomas Wolsey oversees a court in London ruling on the legality of Henry VIII’s marriage to Katherine of Aragon
  • October 26: Cardinal Thomas Wolsey falls from power. Thomas More succeeds him as the Lord Chancellor
  • November 4 – December 17: The first Parliament of the Reformation is held at Westminster

1530

  • November 4: Cardinal Thomas Wolsey is arrested on charges of treason
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Henry VIII

1531

  • February 11: Henry VIII is recognized as the Supreme Head of the Church of England

1532

  • May 16: Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor
  • June 24: Robert Dudley is born to John Dudley and Jane Guildford
  • September 1: Anne Boleyn is created Marquess of Pembroke
  • November 14: Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, daughter of Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Elizabeth Howard, Countess of Wiltshire reportedly marry in a secret ceremony in Dover, England after returning from France
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Anne Boleyn, Queen of England

1533

1534

  • January 15: The Reformation Parliament passes the Act Respecting the Oath to the Succession recognizing Anne Boleyn as queen and her children as Henry VIII’s heirs
  • November 3 – December 18: The Reformation Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy in which Henry VIII is declared supreme head of the Church of England
  • December: Anne Boleyn suffers a miscarriage
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Anne Boleyn, Queen of England

1535

  • February: The Suppression of Religious Houses Act 1535 is passed
  • June 22: Cardinal John Fisher is executed at the Tower of London
  • July 6: Thomas More is executed for treason at the Tower of London
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Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk – uncle of Anne Boleyn and Katherine Howard, widower of Edward IV’s daughter, Anne of York

1536

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Jane Seymour, Queen of England

1537

  • Reginald Pole, son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury is created a Cardinal in the Catholic Church
  • January: Bigod’s Rebellion breaks out against Henry VIII
  • October 12: Edward Tudor is born to Henry VIII and Jane Seymour is born at Hampton Court Palace. He is named Prince of Wales shortly thereafter.
  • October 12: Jane Grey is born to Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset and Frances Brandon, Marchioness of Dorset
  • October 24: Jane Seymour dies at Hampton Court Palace and is buried in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle
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Edward VI as a baby

1538

  • June 12: James V, King of England and Marie of Guise, dowager Duchess of Longueville are married by proxy
  • August: Geoffrey Pole, son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury is arrested for corresponding with his brother, Cardinal Reginald Pole
  • November: Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury is arrested over the actions of her sons, Geoffrey Pole and Cardinal Reginald Pole

1539

  • January 12: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Francis I, King of France sign the Treaty of Toledo, in which they agree not to make any further alliances with England
  • October 4: A treaty is concluded between England and Cleves in which Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves, daughter of Johan III, Duke of Cleves and Maria Julich-Berg, Duchess of Cleves, are married
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Anne of Cleves, Queen of England

1540

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Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury

1541

  • May 27: Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, is executed at the Tower of London
  • October 18: Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland dies at Methven Castle
  • November 1: Henry VIII is informed of Katherine Howard’s adultery and pre-marital relationships
  • November 7: Katherine Howard is questioned by a delegation led by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • November 23: Katherine Howard is stripped of her title, queen of England and imprisoned in Middlesex
  • November 24: Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Henry VII and widow of James IV, King of Scotland, dies at Methven Castle
  • December 10: Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham are executed at Tyburn in relation to the charges against Katherine Howard

1542

  • February 7: A bill of attainder against Katherine Howard is passed by Parliament
  • February 13: Katherine Howard is executed at the Tower of London
  • August 24: The Battle of Haddon Rig is fought, in which Scotland defeats England
  • November 24: The Battle of Solway Moss is fought, in which England defeats Scotland
  • December 8: Mary Stuart is born to James V, King of Scotland Marie of Guise, Queen of Scotland at Linlithgow Palace
  • December 14: James V, King of Scotland dies at Linlithgow Palace; Mary Stuart ascends the Scottish throne
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Katherine Howard, Queen of England

1543

  • February 11: Henry VIII and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor align against France
  • July 1: The Treaty of Greenwich is signed between England and Scotland, in which Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland Edward Tudor, Prince of Wales are betrothed
  • July 12: Henry VIII and Katherine Parr are married at Hampton Court Palace
  • September 9: Mary Stuart is crowned queen of Scotland at Stirling Castle
  • December 11: Scotland repudiates the Treaty of Greenwich; the “Rough Wooing” of Scotland begins

1544

  • Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, daughter of Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus and Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland are married
  • March: The Third Succession Act is passed, in which Mary and Elizabeth Tudor are reinstated into the line of succession after Edward Tudor, Prince of Wales
  • May 3: Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford and brother to Jane Seymour, captures Leith and Edinburgh in Scotland
  • July 19 – September 18: Henry VIII leads the siege of Boulogne in France
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Katherine Parr, Queen of England

1545

  • February 27: The Battle of Ancrum Moor is fought, in which Scotland defeats England
  • May 29: Katherine Parr publishes “Prayers or Meditations”
  • July: France attempts to invade the Isle of Wight
  • July 18-19: The Battle of Solent is fought between England and France. The results are inconclusive, but the English flagship, the Mary Rose, sinks
  • July 21: The Battle of Bonchurch is fought, in which the English defeat the French
  • August 24: Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, widower of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, dies in Guildford
  • December 7: Henry Stuart is born to Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox at Temple Newsam

1546

  • June 7: The Treaty of Ardres is signed, ending the Italian Wars of the 1540s. Henry VIII swears to return Boulogne to France

1547

  • January 19: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, son of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Stafford, Duchess of Norfolk, is executed at the Tower of London.
  • January 28: Henry VIII dies at the Palace of Whitehall; Edward VI ascends the English throne
  • January 31: Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, maternal uncle to Edward VI, is named Lord Protector of England since Edward VI is only nine years old. Seymour is created Duke of Somerset
  • February 20: Edward VI is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • April 4: Katherine Parr and Thomas Seymour, younger brother of Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford are married in secret
  • September 10: The Battle of Pinkie is fought in the English defeat the Scottish
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Edward VI

1548

  • May: Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, is sent from the home of her stepmother, Katherine Parr due to her relationship with Thomas Seymour. It is unclear what exact turn of events occurred leading up to her removal
  • July 7: Scotland and France agree to a marriage alliance between Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland and Francis of Valois, the dauphin
  • August 7: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland sails from Scotland to France to be brought up at the French court of Henry II, King of France and Katherine de’Medici, Queen of France
  • August 30: Mary Seymour is born to Thomas Seymour and Katherine Parr at Sudeley Castle
  • September 5: Katherine Parr dies at Sudeley Castle of childbed fever

1549

  • January: The King’s Council arrests Thomas Seymour, younger brother of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, for embezzlement and seeking to receive the governorship of Edward VI
  • January 15: The Act of Uniformity is passed, imposing the Book of Common Prayer. The book is introduced to churches in June
  • March 20: Thomas Seymour, younger brother of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, is executed at the Tower of London
  • August 8: France declares war on England
  • August 9: England declares war on France
  • October 10: Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset is forced to resign the position of Lord Protector and is replaced by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick in February of the next year
  • October 11: Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset is arrested and brought before Edward VI to hear his charges
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Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudeley

1550

  • March 24: The Treaty of Boulogne is signed between England and France. Under its terms England withdraws from Boulogne
  • June 4: Robert Dudley and Amy Robsart are married

1551

  • October 11: John Dudley, Earl of Warwick is created Duke of Northumberland
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Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset

1552

  • January 22: Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset is executed at the Tower of London for attempting to overthrow the government of John Dudley, Earl of Warwick

1553

  • May 25: Jane Grey, daughter of Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset and Frances Brandon, Marchioness of Dorset, and Guildford Dudley, son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland are married at Durham House
  • June 21: Edward VI names his cousin, Jane Grey, Lady Dudley as his successor
  • July 6: Edward VI dies at Greenwich Palace
  • July 10: Jane Grey is proclaimed queen of England
  • July 19: Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London proclaims Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon the rightful queen. Jane Grey is imprisoned
  • August 3: Mary I enters London triumphantly, accompanied by her half-sister, Elizabeth Tudor
  • August 22: John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland is executed at the Tower of London
  • October 1: Mary I is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey
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Jane Grey, Lady Dudley

1554

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Philip II, King of Spain and Mary I

1555

  • Charles Stuart is born to Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox
  • February 4: The first Protestant is burned at the stake under the reign of May I
  • April 17: Elizabeth Tudor is called to the court of May I to attend to her in the last stages of her pregnancy, which turned out to be false
  • December 4: Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury is forced to step down as Archbishop; he is replaced by Cardinal Reginald Pole

1556

  • March 21: Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury is burned at the stake in Oxford
  • March 22: Cardinal Reginald Pole, son of Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury, is named Archbishop of Canterbury
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Mary I, Queen of England

1557

  • July 16: Anne of Cleves, former wife of Henry VIII dies at Chelsea Manor

1558

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Elizabeth I, Queen of England

1559

  • January 15: Elizabeth I is crowned queen at Westminster Abbey
  • January 23: Parliament re-establishes the Protestant Church of England
  • July 10: Henry II, King of France dies; Francis II ascends the French throne with Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland as his consort
  • November 20: Frances Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk, daughter of Mary Tudor, Queen of France and mother to Jane Grey, Lady Dudley dies in London

1560

  • February 27: The Treaty of Berwick is signed, in which England agrees to help Scotland get rid of French troops defending the regency of Marie of Guise, Queen of Scotland on behalf of her daughter, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland
  • June 11: Marie of Guise, Queen of Scotland dies at Edinburgh Castle
  • September 8: Amy Robsart, Lady Dudley is discovered dead at her home in Oxford. The death caused a scandal given the close relationship between Elizabeth I and Amy’s husband, Robert Dudley
  • December 5: Francis II, King of France, husband of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, dies in Orleans, France

1561

  • August 19: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland departs France for Scotland

1562

  • September 22: Elizabeth I and Louis of Bourbon, Prince of Conde sign the Treaty of Hampton Court, in which the English promise economic aid to the French Protestants. However, once peace was restored, England refused to withdraw its troops

1563

  • July 28: Katherine de’Medici, Queen of France uses both English and Scottish troops to expel the English from France

1564

  • April 11: The Treaty of Troyes is signed, in which England receives monetary compensation for the loss of Calais
  • September: Robert Dudley is created Earl of Leicester
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Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester

1565

1566

  • June 19: James Stuart is born to Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland at Edinburgh Castle

1567

  • January 2: Parliament is dissolved after Elizabeth I refuses to name a successor
  • February 9-10: At some point in the evening, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley is found dead, apparently by smothering
  • April 24: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland is abducted by James Hepburn, Lord Bothwell. To what extent this was planned or an assault is unknown.
  • May 15: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland and James Hepburn, Lord Bothwell are married at Holyrood Palace
  • July 20 – 23: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland miscarries twins
  • July 24: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland is forced to abdicated; James VI ascends the Scottish throne
  • July 29: James VI is crowned king of Scotland at Stirling

1568

  • May 2: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland departs Scotland for England, arriving there on May 18, where she was taken into custody
  • September 21: Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex are secretly married
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Elizabeth I, Queen of England

1569

  • May: Elizabeth I attempts to mediate the restoration of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland in return for the guarantee of Protestantism in Scotland, but a convention at Perth rejects the motion
  • June: Elizabeth I discovers the marriage between Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex. Elizabeth I never accepted the marriage

1570

  • February 25: Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth I

1571

  • April: The Treason Act is passed by Parliament, which forbids criticism of the monarchy
  • August 29: The Ridolfi plot is discovered, in which Roberto Ridolfi, a Florentine banker and a Catholic, had schemed with Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland; Philip II, King of Spain; and Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk to assassinate Elizabeth I and replace her on the English throne with Mary Stuart
  • September 7: Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is arrested for his part in the Ridolfi plot

1572

  • June 2: Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is executed at the Tower of London
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Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk

1573

  • April 17: England captures Edinburgh Castle

1574

  • Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of Elizabeth Hardwick, Countess of Shrewsbury are secretly married
  • December 12: Anne of Denmark is born to Frederick II, King of Denmark and Sophie of Mecklenburg-Gustrow, Queen of Denmark at Skanderborg Castle

1575

  • Arabella Stuart is born to Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish, Countess of Lennox. Her grandmothers are Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox and Elizabeth Hardwick, Countess of Shrewsbury
  • November 14: Elizabeth I declines an offer to rule over the Netherlands

1576

  • Charles Stuart, son of Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox dies

1578

1582

  • January: Elizabeth Cavendish, Countess of Lennox dies. Custody of her daughter, Arabella Stuart, is given to Elizabeth Hardwick, Countess of Shrewsbury
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Elizabeth I, Queen of England

1583

  • March 10: Queen Elizabeth’s Men actors’ troupe is founded
  • December: A plot to invade England and replace Elizabeth I with Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland is discovered by Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State

1585

  • May 19: Spain seizes English ships in Spanish ports
  • July 7: Roanoke Colony in North America is established
  • August 14: England establishes a protectorate over the Netherlands
  • August 20: The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, in which England promises to support the Dutch Revolt against the Hapsburgs

1586

  • July 1: The Treaty of Berwick is signed between England and Scotland
  • July 17: The Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth I is discovered by Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State
  • October 15 – 25: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland is placed on trial for her involvement in the Babington Plot
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Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland

1587

1588

  • July 28: The English fleet defeats the Spanish Armada at the Battle of Gravelines
  • August 19: Elizabeth I delivers a speech to the land forces at Tilbury in preparation for repelling the expected invasion of the Spanish Armada
  • September 4: Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester dies in Oxfordshire

1589

  • July: The betrothal of James VI, King of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, daughter of Frederick II, King of Denmark is sealed
  • November 23: James VI, King of Scotland and Anne of Denmark are married in Oslo at the Bishop’s Palace

1590

  • May 17: Anne of Denmark is crowned queen of Scotland at the Abbey Church at Holyrood, the first Protestant coronation in Scotland
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James VI, King of Scotland

1591

  • August: English forces support Henry IV, King of France at the Siege of Rouen

1594

1595

  • July: Anne of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, wife of James VI, King of Scotland, suffers a miscarriage
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Anne of Denmark, Queen of Scotland

1596

  • August 19: Elizabeth Stuart is born to James VI, King of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Queen of Scotland at Falkland Palace in Fife

1598

  • December 24: Margaret Stuart is born to James VI, King of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Queen of Scotland at Dalkeith Palace

1599

  • March 12: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
  • Spring/Summer: The Globe Theatre is built in Southwark
  • April 23: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex arrives in Dublin
  • September 8: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex signs a truce with one of the Irish leaders attempting to overthrow English rule. He leaves Ireland against the instruction of Elizabeth I
  • September 28: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex returns to England and is arrested

1600

  • March: Margaret Stewart, daughter of James VI, King of Scotland, dies at Linlithgow Palace
  • November 19: Charles Stuart is born to James VI, King of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Queen of Scotland at Dunfermline Palace
  • December 23: Charles Stuart, son of James VI, King of Scotland is named Duke of Albany

1601

  • January 7 – 8: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex stages a rebellion against Elizabeth I
  • February 25: Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex is executed at the Tower of London
  • November 30: Elizabeth I delivers her Golden Speech to Parliament, in which she reveals it will be her final address to Parliament

1602

  • January 18: Robert Stuart is born to James VI, King of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Queen of Scotland at Dunfermline Palace
  • May 2: Robert Stuart, son of James VI, King of Scotland is named Duke of Kintyre
  • May 27: Robert Stuart, son of James VI, King of Scotland dies at Dunfermline Palace
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The funeral of Elizabeth I, Queen of England

The House of Stuart

1603

  • March 24: Elizabeth I dies at Richmond Palace; James I ascends the English throne
  • May 10: Anne of Denmark, wife of James I, suffers a miscarriage
  • July 25: James I and Anne of Denmark are crowned king and queen of England at Westminster Abbey
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James I

1604

  • January 14 – 16: The Hampton Court Conference is held during which work begins on the Authorized King James Version of the Bible and a revision of the Book of Common Prayer
  • March 19: Parliament begins debating the union of England and Scotland
  • August 18: The Treaty of London brings the Anglo-Spanish War to an end
  • October 20: James I assumes the title King of Great Britain (Note: He, and subsequent monarchs, will be referred to as the King of England on this page until 1707)

1605

  • April 8: Mary Stuart is born to James I and Anne of Denmark at Greenwich Palace
  • November 5: The Gunpowder Plot is discovered, in which the Houses of Parliament were going to be blown up and James I assassinated by Catholic Guy Fawkes.

1606

  • January 31: Guy Fawkes and his coconspirators are arrested
  • April 10: The First Charter of Virginia is adopted
  • April 12: The first version of the Union flag is adopted
  • May: Penalties are imposed for Catholics who refuse to attend Anglican services and take the Oath of Allegiance to James I
  • June 22: Sophia Stuart is born to James I and Anne of Denmark at Greenwich Palace
  • June 23: Sophia Stuart, daughter of James I dies at Greenwich Palace

1607

  • May 14: Jamestown, Virginia is settled
  • December 16: Mary Stuart, daughter of James I dies in Surrey
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Anne of Denmark, Queen of England

1609

  • November 25: Henrietta Maria of France is born to Henry IV, King of France and Marie de’Medici, Queen of France at the Louvre

1610

  • Henry Stuart, Duke of Cornwall is invested as Prince of Wales
  • June 22: Arabella Stuart, daughter of Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish, Countess of Lennox, and William Seymour, Lord Beauchamp, grandson of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, are married in secret at Greenwich Palace
  • July 9: Arabella Stuart, Lady Beauchamp and William Seymour, Lord Beauchamp are imprisoned for marrying without the King’s permission

1611

  • June: William Seymour, Lord Beauchamp and Arabella Stuart, Lady Beauchamp attempt to escape captivity and meet up. Seymour was successful, however Arabella was apprehended and returned to the Tower of London
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Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales

1612

  • November 6: Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales, son of James I dies. He is buried in Westminster Abbey

1613

  • February 14: Frederick, Elector of Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I are married at Whitehall Palace
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Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

1614

  • April 5: Parliament meets for the first time since 1610 and debates taxes levied by James I

1615

1616

  • January 3: Sir George Villiers, a favorite of James I is named Master of the Horse
  • March 19: Sir Walter Raleigh is released from the Tower of London to organize an expedition to El Dorado
  • November 4: Charles Stuart, Duke of Albany is invested as Prince of Wales

1617

  • January: Sir George Villiers, the favorite of James I is named Earl of Buckingham
  • January: Pocahontas is received at court by James I and Anne of Denmark

1618

  • George Villiers, Earl of Buckingham is named Marquess of Buckingham by James I
  • October 29: Sir Walter Raleigh is executed at the Palace of Westminster
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Anne of Denmark, Queen of England

1619

  • March 2: Anne of Denmark, wife of James I dies at Hampton Court Palace

1620

  • April 27: A treaty with Spain arranges the marriage of Charles Stuart, Prince of Wales and Maria Anna of Spain, daughter of Philip III, King of Spain, in exchange for relaxing the laws governing Catholics in England

1621

  • January 16: Parliament meets for the first time since 1614

1623

  • May: George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham is named Duke of Buckingham by James I
  • August 30: Negotiations between England and Spain over the marriage of Charles Stuart, Prince of Wales break down
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Henrietta Maria of France

1624

  • March 10: England declares war on Spain
  • June 24: Virginia becomes an English colony
  • December 12: A treaty with France arranges the marriage of Charles Stuart, Prince of Wales with Henrietta Maria of France, daughter of Henry IV, King of France

1625

  • March 27: James I dies at Theobalds House; Charles I ascends the English throne
  • June 13: Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France are married in Canterbury
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Charles I

1626

  • February 2: Charles I is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey; Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England cannot be crowned in an Anglican service as a Catholic.
  • June 26: Charles I expels Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England’s French attendants from the royal court

1627

  • January: French ships are seized by the English in the English Channel
  • June 2: George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham leads an expedition to assist Protestants at the Siege of La Rochelle in France. He leaves on November 8, having lost half of his forces

1628

  • March 17: Charles I reconvenes Parliament
  • June 7: Charles I is forced to accept the Petition of Right, which lays out subjects’ liberties
  • August 23: George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham is assassinated by John Felton in Portsmouth

1629

  • March 4: Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal Charter
  • March 10: Charles I dissolves Parliament, beginning a personal rule
  • March 13: Charles Stuart, Duke of Cornwall is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England. He dies shortly after his birth
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Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England

1630

  • May 29: Charles Stuart, Duke of Cornwall is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of England at St. James’s Palace
  • October 14: Sophia of the Palatinate is born to Frederick V, King of Bohemia and Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia at The Hague. She is the twelfth of thirteen children born to the couple

1631

  • November 4: Mary Stuart is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England at St. James’s Palace

1632

  • June 20: A royal charter for the colony of Maryland is issued

1633

  • October 14: James Stuart, Duke of York is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England at St. James’s Palace
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Charles I

1635

  • December 29: Elizabeth Stuart is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England at St. James’s Palace

1637

1638

  • November 25: Katherine of Braganza is born to John IV, King of Portugal and Luisa de Guzman, Queen of Portugal in Lisbon
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Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France

1639

  • January 26: Charles I raises an army to fight the Scottish Covenanters in the First Bishop’s War
  • January 29: Katherine Stuart is born stillborn to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England at St. James’s Palace
  • June 19: The Treaty of Berwick is signed, ending the First Bishop’s War

1640

  • April 13: Charles I summons the Short Parliament to fund the Second Bishop’s War against the Scottish Covenanters
  • May 5: The Short Parliament is dismissed
  • July 8: Henry Stuart is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England at Oatland’s Palace
  • August 20: The Scottish Covenanters invade Northumberland
  • August 28: The Battle of Newburn is fought, in which the Covenanter army defeats the English
  • November 3: The Long Parliament is summoned
  • November 5: Anne Stuart, daughter of Charles I, dies at Richmond Palace

1641

  • May 2: Mary Stuart, daughter of Charles I, and William of Orange are married at Whitehall Palace
  • May 12: Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford is executed at the Tower of London
  • October 23: The Irish Rebellion breaks out. Parliament votes to send an army to defeat the rebellion a few weeks later
  • December 1: Parliament presents the Grand Remonstrance to Charles I
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Charles I

1642

  • Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, daughter of Charles I is named Princess Royal. Mary leaves England for the Netherlands to join her husband, William of Orange
  • January 4: Charles I attempts to arrest five members of Parliament, but they escape. This marks the last time a monarch enters the House of Commons
  • February 13: The Bishops Exclusion Act is passed, in which bishops are excluded from the House of Lords
  • February 23 – March 11: Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England and Mary Stuart, Princess Royal leave England for The Hague
  • June 18: Charles I rejects the Nineteen Propositions
  • August 22: Charles I raises the royal battle standard over Nottingham Castle, declaring war against Parliament
  • September 7: The Siege of Portsmouth ends with Royalists surrendering to Parliament
  • September 23: The Battle of Powick Bridge is fought, in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • October 29: The royal court is established at Oxford
  • November 13: The Battel of Turnham Green is fought, in which the Royalist forces are defeated and fail to take London

1643

  • January 19: The Battle of Braddock Down is fought in the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • March 13: The First Battle of Middlewich is fought in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • March 18: The Battle of New Ross is fought between English and Irish forces
  • March 19: The Battle of Hopton Heath is fought, in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • May 13: The Battle of Grantham is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • May 16: The Battle of Stratton is fought in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • June 18: The Battle of Chalgrove Field is fought in the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • June 30: The Battle of Adwalton Moor is fought in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • July 5: The Battle of Lansdowne is fought in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • July 13: The Battle of Roundway Down is fought in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • July 28: The Battle of Gainsborough is fought in the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • September 20: The First Battle of Newsbury is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • October 11: The Battle of Winceby is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • December 13: The Battle of Alton is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • December 27: The Second Battle of Middlewich is fought in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
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Charles I

1644

  • January: Charles I opens the Oxford Parliament
  • January 26: The Battle of Nantwich is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • March 21: Prince Ruper of the Rhine, son of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, relieves Newark
  • March 29: The Battle of Cheriton is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • May 28: The Bolton Massacre occurs, led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, son of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia
  • June 16: Henrietta Anne Stuart is born to Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England at Bedford House in Exeter
  • June 29: The Battle of Cropredy Bridge is fought, in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • July 2: The Battle of Marston Moor is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • July 14: Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England leaves England for France
  • September 2: The Second Battle of Loswithiel is fought, in which the Royalists defeat the Parliamentarians
  • October 27: The Second Battle of Newbury is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • December 19: Parliament passes the Self-denying Ordinance

1645

  • January 10: William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury is executed for treason at the Tower of London
  • January 29 – February 22: The Treaty of Uxbridge Armistice talks take place, but come to nothing
  • April 3: The House of Lords passes the Self-denying ordinance, requiring members of Parliament to resign commissions in the armed forces
  • June 14: The Battle of Naseby is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • September 10: Prince Rupert of the Rhine, son of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, surrenders Bristol
  • September 24: The Battle of Rowton Heath is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
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Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange

1646

  • January 9: The Battle of Bovey Heath is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • February 16: The Battle of Torrington is fought in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • March 2: Charles Stuart, Prince of Wales escapes from Cornwall to exile on the continent
  • April 27: Charles I escapes from Oxford in disguise
  • May 5: Charles I surrenders his forces to a Scottish army in Nottinghamshire
  • December 23: The Covenanters hand over custody of Charles I to the Parliamentarians

1647

  • January 30: Charles I is delivered by the Scottish to the English
  • March 14: William of Orange and Mary Stuart, Princess Royal become the Prince and Princess of Orange
  • May 18: The House of Commons disbands the army
  • June 4: Charles I is taken to Newmarket
  • August 2: Charles I rejects the proposals in the Heads of Proposals
  • August 7: Oliver Cromwell takes control of Parliament with the New Model Army
  • August 20: Parliament passes the Null and Void Ordinance
  • November 11: Charles I attempts to escape custody of the New Model Army, but is captured and imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight
  • December 24: Charles I rejects additional demands from Parliament
  • December 26: Charles I signs a secret treaty with Scotland to enforce Presbyterianism in England in exchange for military assistance

1648

  • January 17: The Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Addresses
  • May 2: Scotland votes in favor of war with England to assist Charles I
  • May 8: The Battle of Maidstone is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • August 17 – 19: The Battle of Preston is fought, in which the Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists
  • September 15 – November 27: The Treaty of Newport is signed between Charles I and Parliament
  • December 1: Charles I is moved from the Isle of Wight to Hurst Castle
  • December 5: The House of Commons votes in favor of the Treaty of Newport
  • December 19 – 22: Charles I is moved from Hurst Castle to Windsor Castle
  • December 28 – 29: The Rump Parliament gives first and second readings instituting the High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I
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Banqueting House in London

1649

  • January 4: The Rump Parliament sets up a High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I for treason in the name of the people of England
  • January 20 – 27: Charles I is tried and convicted of high treason in Westminster Hall
  • January 30: Charles I is executed at Banqueting House; Charles Stuart, Duke of Cornwall declares himself king of England; Parliament passes an act abolishing the monarchy
  • March 17: The Rump Parliament formally abolishes the monarchy and establishes the Commonwealth of England
  • March 19: The House of Commons abolishes the House of Lords
  • August 15: Oliver Cromwell lands in Dublin to begin the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
  • September 3 – 11: The New Model Army massacres the Irish Catholic Confederation

1650

  • May 1: Charles Stuart, Duke of Cornwall signs the Treaty of Breda with the Scottish Covenanters
  • May 26: Oliver Cromwell leaves Ireland
  • June 23: Charles Stuart, Duke of Cornwall arrives in Scotland and signs the Covenant
  • September 3: The Battle of Dunbar is fought, in which Oliver Cromwell defeats the Covenanters

1650

  • September 8: Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Charles I dies at Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight
  • November 4: William of Orange is born to William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart, Prince of Orange at The Hague
  • November 6: William II, Prince of Orange, husband of Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, dies at The Hague
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Charles II, while in exile

1651

  • January 1: Charles II is crowned king of Scotland at Scone
  • September 3: The Battle of Worcester is fought in which Charles II, King of Scotland is defeated by the New Model Army
  • October 15 – 16: Charles II, King of Scotland departs England for France
  • October 28: The Tender of Union is issued by Parliament, declaring England and Scotland a single commonwealth

1652

  • June 30: England declares war on the Netherlands

1653

  • April 20: Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament
  • July 4 – December 12: The Barebones Parliament meets in London
  • December 16: The Instrument of Britain sets up the first English constitution and Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector

1654

  • April 5: The Treaty of Westminster ends the Anglo-Dutch War
  • April 12: Oliver Cromwell creates a union between England and Scotland, with Scottish representation in Parliament
  • September 3: The First Protectorate Parliament assembles

1655

  • January 22: Oliver Cromwell dissolves the First Protectorate Parliament
  • March 11 – March 14: A Royalist uprising is defeated
  • November 24: Anglican services are outlawed by Oliver Cromwell
  • December 4 – December 18: The Whitehall Conference is convened to debate the Resettlement of England’s Jewish population
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Oliver Cromwell

1656

  • April 2: Charles II and Philip IV, King of Spain sign a treaty to reconquer England
  • September 17: The Second Protectorate Parliament assembles

1657

  • Mary Stuart, Dowager Princess of Orange and daughter of Charles I is named Regent in Holland on behalf of her son, William III, Prince of Orange
  • January 8: A plot to assassinate Oliver Cromwell and blow up Whitehall Palace is discovered
  • February 4: Oliver Cromwell gives assurances for the rights of Jewish populations to remain in England
  • February 23: The Humble Petition and Advice offers Oliver Cromwell the crown of England
  • March 13: The Treaty of Paris is signed, in which England and France form an alliance against Spain
  • May 8: Oliver Cromwell rejects the offer to become king of England
  • June 26: Oliver Cromwell is installed as Lord Protector for the second time during a ceremony at Westminster Palace

1658

  • February 4: Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Second Protectorate Parliament
  • June 14: The Battle of the Dunes is fought, in which French and English forces defeat the Spanish
  • September 3: Oliver Cromwell dies at Whitehall Palace; Richard Cromwell succeeds his father as Lord Protector
  • September 30: Sophia of the Palatinate, daughter of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, and Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg are married at Heidelburg
  • October 5: Mary of Modena is born to Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena and Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena at the Ducal Palace in Modena

1659

  • April 22: Richard Cromwell disbands Parliament
  • May 22: The Treaty of The Hague is signed by England, France and the Netherlands
  • May 13: Henry Stuart, son of Charles I, is named Duke of Gloucester
  • May 25: Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector
  • May 28: George Ludwig of Hanover is born to Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and Sophia of the Palatinate, Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg in Hanover
  • October 12: The Rump Parliament dismisses General-major John Lambert and other generals
  • October 13: John Lambert excludes the Rump Parliament from Westminster Palace
  • December 26: The Long Parliament reforms at Westminster Palace
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Charles II

1660

  • February 21: The Presbyterian Members of Parliament expelled in 1648 are readmitted
  • March 16: The Long Parliament disbands
  • April 4: The Declaration of Breda promises amnesty in return for the Restoration of the Monarchy
  • April 25: The Convention Parliament meets to debate the Restoration of the Monarchy; the House Lords meets for the first time since 1649
  • May 1: The Declaration of Breda is presented to Parliament
  • May 8: Parliament declares that Charles II has been the rightful king of England since the death of Charles I on January 30, 1649 and invites him to return to England
  • May 19: The restored Church of England canonizes Charles I as a martyr and a saint
  • May 25: Charles II lands in England
  • May 29: Charles II enters London and formally assumes the English throne
  • September 3: James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, are secretly married in London. At some point this year Anne Hyde converts to Catholicism
  • September 13: Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, son of Charles I dies at Whitehall Palace
  • October 13: Ten commissioners who signed the death warrant of Charles I are hanged, drawn and quartered
  • October 22: Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, Duchess of York at Worcester House in London
  • November 22: France officially asks Charles II, King of Britain for the hand of his sister, Henrietta Anne Stuart, to marry Philippe, Duke of Orleans, younger brother of Louis XIV, King of France
  • December 24: Mary Stuart, Dowager Princess of Orange and daughter of Charles I dies at Whitehall Palace

1661

  • January: Henrietta Anne Stuart, daughter of Charles I departs England for France
  • January 30: The bodies of Oliver Cromwell and three of his supports are exhumed and posthumously executed
  • March 31: Philippe, Duke of Orleans and Henrietta Anne Stuart are married at the Palais Royale in Paris
  • April 23: Charles II is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey
  • May 4: James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, son of James Stuart, Duke of York dies at Whitehall Palace
  • May 8: The Cavalier Parliament meets
  • June 23: Charles II signs a treaty with Portugal, in which he agrees to marry Katherine of Braganza, daughter of John IV, King of Portugal
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Katherine of Braganza, Queen of England

1662

  • February 13: Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia and daughter of James I dies in London
  • April 30: Mary Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, Duchess of York at St. James’s Palace
  • May 21: Charles II and Katherine of Braganza, daughter of John IV, King of Portugal are married at Portsmouth. The public ceremony was Protestant, while a Catholic ceremony was conducted secretly
  • August 23: Charles II and Katherine of Braganza arrive in London from Hampton Court Palace
  • August 24: The Act of Uniformity is introduced in Parliament

1663

  • January 10: The Royal African Company is granted a Royal Charter
  • February: Parliament pressures Charles II into withdrawing a proposed Declaration of Indulgence
  • March 24: The Province of Carolina is established in North America
  • July 8: A royal charter is granted to the Colony of Rhode Island and the Providence Plantations
  • July 12: James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, Duchess of York at St. James’s Palace

1664

  • March 12: The Province of New Jersey becomes an English colony
  • August 18: New Netherland becomes an English colony and is renamed New York

1665

  • February 6: Anne Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, Duchess of York at St. James’s Palace
  • August 2: The naval Battle of Vagen is fought, in which the Dutch defeat the English
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Anne Hyde, Duchess of York

1666

  • January/February: Katherine of Braganza suffers a miscarriage
  • June 1 – 4: The Four Days’ Battle is fought, in which the Dutch defeat the English
  • July 4: Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, Duchess of York at St. James’s Palace
  • July 25: The St. James’s Day Battle is fought, in which the English defeat the Dutch
  • August 9 – 10: Rear Admiral Robert Holmes leads an English raid on Terschelling
  • September 2 – 5: The Great Fire of London
  • September 15: Sophia Dorothea of Celle is born to George William, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and Eleanore Desmier d’Olbreuse in Celle. Sophia Dorothea’s parents were not legally married at the time of her birth, though they would be in 1676

1667

  • May 22: Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal, son of James Stuart, Duke of York dies at St. James’s Palace
  • June 20: James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, son of James Stuart, Duke of York dies at Richmond Palace
  • July 21: The Treaty of Breda is signed, in which the Second Anglo-Dutch War ends

1668

  • Katherine of Braganza suffers a miscarriage
  • James Stuart, Duke of York converts to Catholicism at some point this year or the next
  • January 28: England signs the Triple Alliance with the United Provinces and Sweden

1669

  • January 13: Henrietta Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Anne Hyde, Duchess of York
  • June 7: Katherine of Braganza suffers a miscarriage
  • September 10: Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of England and widow of Charles I dies at the Chateau de Colombes
  • November 15: Henrietta Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York dies
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Henrietta Anne Stuart, Duchess of Orleans

1670

  • June 1: The Treaty of Dover is secretly signed between England and France, in which France was required to assist Charles II in bringing England back into the Catholic Church
  • June 30: Henrietta Anne Stuart, Duchess of Orleans and daughter of Charles I dies at the Chateau de Saint Cloud

1671

1672

  • March 15: Charles II issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, suspending execution of penal laws against heretics and Catholics

1673

  • March 8: Charles II withdraws the Royal Declaration of Indulgence
  • March 29: The Test Act is passed, barring Catholics from holding public office
  • June 12: James Stuart, Duke of York is forced to resign as Lord High Admiral because of the Test Act
  • November 9: Charles II removes Anthony Ashley Cooper, earl of Shaftesbury from his position as Lord Chancellor
  • November 23: James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena are married
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Mary of Modena, Duchess of York

1674

  • February 9: The Treaty of Westminster ends the Third Anglo-Dutch War
  • March: Mary of Modena, Duchess of York, wife of James, Duke of York, suffers a miscarriage
  • November 10: Under the Treaty of Westminster, the Dutch cede New Netherland to England, including its capital, New Orange, whose name reverts to New York

1675

  • January 10: Katherine Laura Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York
  • April 13: Parliament refuses to vote funds for Charles II and is suspended
  • October: Mary of Modena, Duchess of York gives birth to a stillborn child
  • October 3: Katherine Laura Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York dies

1676

  • August 28: Isabel Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York at St. James’s Palace
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Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange

1677

1678

  • Elizabeth Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York. She dies immediately after birth
  • Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York suffers a miscarriage
  • September 6: The Popish Plot, a Catholic plot to assassinate Charles II is discovered.
  • December 3: The Test Act dictates at members of Parliament must swear an anti-Catholic oath before taking office
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James Stuart, Duke of York

1679

  • Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York suffers a miscarriage
  • January 24: Charles II dismisses the Cavalier Parliament
  • March: James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York leave England for Belgium
  • March 6 – May 27: The Habeas Corpus Parliament meets
  • May 15: The Exclusion Bill is introduced in Parliament, with the goal of excluding James Stuart, Duke of York from the line of succession on the grounds that he’s a Catholic
  • July 12: The Habeas Corpus Parliament is dissolved
  • July 24: The Exclusion Bill Parliament is summoned and prorogued until 1680
  • August: Anne Stuart joins James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York in Belgium
  • October: James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York move to Scotland; Anne Stuart returns to England
  • November 17: An effigy of the Pope is burned in the streets of London

1680

  • Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York suffers a miscarriage
  • February: James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York, are recalled to London from Edinburgh
  • Autumn: James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York return to Edinburgh from London
  • October 21: The Exclusion Bill Parliament assembles
  • November 4: A second Exclusion Bill is proposed excluding James Stuart, Duke of York from the succession
  • November 15: The House of Lords rejects the Exclusion Bill
  • December 7: William Howard, Lord Stafford is condemned to death for his supposed involvement in the Popish Plot. He is executed at the Tower of London on December 27
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Charles II

1681

  • Mary of Modena, Duchess of York gives birth to an unnamed child that dies immediately after birth
  • January 18: The Exclusion Bill Parliament is dissolved
  • March 2: Isabel Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York dies at St. James’s Palace
  • March 21 – March 28: The Oxford Parliament meets and debates the Exclusion Bill; the bill is rejected by the House of Lords
  • July: Anne Stuart joins James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York in Edinburgh
  • July 2: Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury is charged with treason and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but later acquitted

1682

  • May: James Stuart, Duke of York; Mary of Modena, Duchess of York; and Anne Stuart return to England from Holyrood Palace in Scotland
  • August 16: Charlotte Maria Stuart is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and Mary of Modena, Duchess of York
  • October 16: Charlotte Maria Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York dies
  • November 20: Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury flees England for Holland after being accused of plotting against Charles II
  • November 22: George Ludwig of Hanover, son of Sophia of the Palatinate, Electress of Hanover and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, daughter of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg are married
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Katherine of Braganza, Queen of England

1683

  • March 1: Caroline of Ansbach is born to John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Eleanore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach, Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach in Ansbach
  • June 12: The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II is discovered
  • July 21: William, Lord Russell is executed at Lincoln’s Inn Fields for his role in the Rye House Plot
  • July 28: Anne Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York and George of Denmark, son of Frederick III, King of Denmark are married in the Chapel Royal at St. James’s Palace
  • October: Mary of Modena, Duchess of York gives birth to an unnamed child that dies soon after birth
  • October 30: George Augustus of Hanover is born to George Ludwig of Hanover and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, Electoral Princess of Hanover at Herrenhausen Palace

1684

  • May: Mary of Modena, Duchess of York, wife of James, Duke of York, gives birth to an unnamed child that dies soon after birth
  • May 12: Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark, daughter of James, Duke of York, gives birth to a stillborn daughter in London
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Charles II

1685

  • February 6: Charles II dies at Whitehall Palace; James II ascends the English throne
  • April 23: James II and Mary of Modena are crowned king and queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • May 19: The Loyal Parliament begins
  • June 2: Mary of Denmark is born to George of Denmark and Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark at Whitehall Palace
  • June 11: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II lands at Lyme Regis to challenge James II’s claim to the throne
  • June 20: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth declares himself king
  • July 6: The Battle of Sedgemoor is fought in which James II defeats James Scott, Duke of Monmouth
  • July 15: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth is executed at the Tower of London
  • November 20: The Loyal Parliament is prorogued
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James II

1686

  • May 12: Anne Sophia of Denmark is born to George of Denmark and Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark at Windsor Castle
  • July 17: James II appoints four Catholics to the Privy Council

1687

  • January 21: Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark suffers a miscarriage
  • February 2: Anne Sophia of Denmark, daughter of Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark dies at Windsor Castle
  • February 6: Mary of Denmark, daughter of Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark dies at Windsor Castle
  • March 16: Sophia Dorothea of Hanover is born to George Ludwig of Hanover and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, Electoral Princess of Hanover in Hanover
  • April 4: James II issues the Declaration of Indulgence, suspending laws against Catholics
  • October 22: Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark, daughter of James II, gives birth to a stillborn son at Whitehall Palace
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Mary of Modena, Queen of England and her son, James Stuart

1688

  • April 16: Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark, daughter of James II, suffers a miscarriage
  • May 13: William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury forms the Seven Bishops during a meeting at Lambeth Palace, all of whom are opposed to the Declaration of Indulgences
  • May 18: The Seven Bishops present a petition to James II
  • June 8: The Seven Bishops are imprisoned at the Tower of London
  • June 10: James Stuart is born to James II and Mary of Modena at St. James’s Palace
  • June 29 – 30: The Seven Bishops are found not guilty
  • June 30: The Immortal Seven invite William III, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart, Princess of Orange, daughter of James II to depose James II
  • November 5: William III, Prince of Orange lands at Brixham, England
  • December 9: The Battle of Reading is held, in which the supporters of William III, Prince of Orange defeat those of James II
  • December 10: Mary of Modena and her son depart England for France
  • December 11: James II attempts to depart England for France, but is intercepted in Kent
  • December 18: William III, Prince of Orange enters London
  • December 22: James II successfully leaves England for France
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James II

1689

  • January 22: The Convention Parliament is convened to determine whether James II has left the throne. It is agreed that he did on February 8
  • February 13: William III and Mary II are proclaimed king and queen of England
  • March 12: James II lands in Kinsale with French soldiers and marches towards Dublin
  • April: George of Denmark is made an English citizen and made Duke of Cumberland
  • April 11: William III and Mary II are crowned king and queen of England at Westminster Abbey
  • April 18: Derry refuses to surrender to James II
  • May 1: The Battle of Bantry Bay is fought and French forces are able to successfully unload supplies for James II
  • May 12: William III joins the Grand Alliance
  • May 24: The Act of Toleration is passed by Parliament, protecting freedom of worship for Protestant faiths. Catholics are not included
  • July 24: William, Duke of Gloucester is born to George of Denmark and Anne Stuart, Princess of Denmark at Hampton Court Palace
  • August 1: William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury is suspended for refusing to swear allegiance to William III and Mary II
  • December 16: The Bill of Rights comes into affect
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William III

1690

  • May 20: The Act of Grace is passed, forgiving followers of James II
  • July 1: The Battle of the Boyne is fought, in which William III defeats James II
  • October 14: Mary of Cumberland is born to George of Denmark, Duke of Cumberland and Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland at St. James’s Palace. She dies shortly after birth

1691

  • October 3: The Treaty of Limerick ends the war between James II and William III in Ireland
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Mary II

1692

  • February 19: After an argument with Mary II, Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland leaves court
  • April 17: George of Cumberland is born to George of Denmark, Duke of Cumberland and Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland at Syon House. He dies shortly after birth
  • May 5: Mary II orders the imprisonment of John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough, a friend of Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland’s, for alleged support of James II
  • June 28: Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart is born to James II and Mary of Modena at the Chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
  • December 19: Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and Sophia of the Palatinate, Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg are named Elector and Electress of Hanover
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Sophia Dorothea of Celle, Electoral Princess of Hanover, with her children, the future George II and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, Queen of Prussia

1693

  • March 23: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland gives birth to a stillborn daughter at Berkeley House

1694

  • Following mutual infidelity and the disappearance of the lover of Sophia Dorothea of Celle, Electoral Princess of Hanover, the marriage between Sophia Dorothea and George Ludwig of Hanover is dissolved. Sophia Dorothea is moved to Ahlden Castle, where she remains imprisoned until her death
  • January 21: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland suffers a miscarriage
  • December 28: Mary II dies at Kensington Palace; William III begins his solo rule
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Mary II

1696

  • January 13: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland, daughter of James II, returns to court to act as consort
  • February 15: A Jacobite assassination plot against William III is discovered
  • February 17/18: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland suffers a miscarriage
  • September 20: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland suffers a miscarriage

1697

  • March 25: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland, daughter of James II, suffers a miscarriage
  • December: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland, daughter of James II, suffers a miscarriage
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Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland

1698

  • September 15: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland gives birth to a stillborn son at Windsor Castle
  • October 11: The Treaty of the Hague is signed between England, France and Holland

1699

  • June 11: The Second Partition Treaty for Spain is agreed upon by England, France and Holland

1700

  • January 24: Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland gives birth to a stillborn son at St. James’s Palace
  • March 25: The Treaty of London is signed by England, France and Holland
  • July 30: William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Anne Stuart, Duchess of Cumberland dies at Windsor Castle

1701

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William III

1702

1705

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Queen Anne

1706

  • February: The Regency Act requires senior officers of the state to proclaim Queen Anne’s heir the next Protestant in the line of the succession
  • July 22: The Treaty of Union merges England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain, going into effect the next year
  • November 28: Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, daughter of George Ludwig, Elector of Hanover and Frederick William, Crown Prince of Prussia re married

1707

  • January 16: The Parliament of Scotland passes the Union with England Act
  • February 1: Frederick of Hanover is born to George Augustus of Hanover and Caroline of Ansbach, Electoral Princess of Hanover at Harrenhausen in Hanover
  • March 19: The Act of Union with Scotland is ratified by the English Parliament
  • May 1: England and Scotland are legally merged into Great Britain
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George of Denmark, Duke of Cumberland

1708

  • February 13: Queen Anne refuses to approve the Scottish Militia Bill, signifying the last time a British monarch does so
  • March 23: James Stuart, son of James II unsuccessfully tries to land in England with French troops
  • May 1: The privy councils of England and Scotland are merged into the Privy Council of Great Britain
  • October 28: George of Denmark, Duke of Cumberland, husband of Queen Anne, dies at Kensington Palace

1709

  • November 2: Anne of Hanover is born to George Augustus of Hanover and Caroline of Ansbach, Electoral Princess of Hanover at Herrenhausen in Hanover

1711

  • June 10: Amelia of Hanover is born to George Augustus of Hanover and Caroline of Ansbach, Electoral Princess of Hanover, at Herrenhausen in Hanover
  • December 31: John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough is replaced by James Butler, Duke of Ormonde as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in the War of the Spanish Succession
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Sarah Jennings Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

1712

1713

  • February 25: Frederick William, Crown Prince of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, Crown Princess of Prussia ascend the Prussian throne
  • March 27: The First Treaty of Utrecht is signed between Great Britain and Spain
  • April 11: The Second Treaty of Utrecht is signed between Great Britain and France ending the War of the Spanish Succession
  • June 10: Caroline of Hanover is born to George Augustus of Hanover and Caroline of Ansbach, Electoral Princess of Hanover at Herrenhausen in Hanover

The House of Hanover

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George I

1714

1715

  • July 12: The Habeas Corpus Act is suspended due to fear over a Jacobean rebellion
  • November 13: The Battle of Sheriffmuir is fought, in which British forces suppress the Jacobean forces
  • November 15: The Third Barrier Treaty is signed between Great Britain, the Holy Roman Empire and Holland
  • December 22: James Stuart, son of James II joins the Jacobite rebels, but fails to inspire an army
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Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales

1716

  • George I visits Hanover
  • February 10: James Stuart, son of James II returns to France
  • July 5: Ernest Augustus of Hanover, younger brother of George I is named Duke of York and Albany
  • November 20: Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales gives birth to a stillborn son
  • December 24: The Triple Alliance is signed by Great Britain, France and Holland to uphold the 1713 Treaty of Utretcht

1717

  • January 4: The Triple Alliance is again signed by Great Britain, France and Holland. Due to this treaty, James Stuart, son of James II is forced to leave France and seek refuge with the Pope in Rome
  • November 13: George William of Wales is born to George Augustus, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales at St. James’s Palace. Following this birth, a rift is formed between George I and his son, George Augustus
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George I

1718

  • February: Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales suffers a miscarriage
  • February 17: George William of Wales, son of George Augustus, Prince of Wales dies at Kensington Palace
  • May 7: Mary of Modena, widow of James II, dies at the Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in Paris
  • August 2: The Quadruple Alliance is formed between Great Britain, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Holland
  • December 17: The Quadruple Alliance declares war on Spain

1719

  • George I visits Hanover
  • April 28: A Peerage Bill to prevent the creation of peers in the House of Lords is defeated in the House of Commons
  • September 3: James Stuart, son of James II and Maria Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of John III, King of Poland are married in Montefiascone, Italy

1720

  • George I visits Hanover
  • February 17: The Treaty of the Hague ends the War of the Quadruple Alliance
  • December 31: Charles Stuart is born to James Stuart and Maria Clementina Sobieska Stuart in Rome
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George I

1721

  • March 9: John Aislabie is found guilty of corruption because of the collapse of the South Sea Company
  • April 4: Robert Walpole is named the first Prime Minister
  • April 26: William of Wales is born to George Augustus, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales at Leicester House

1722

  • August 24: Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester is arrested for supporting James Stuart, son of James II
  • October 17: The Habeas Corpus Act is suspended following the discovery of the Atterbury Plot

1723

  • George I visits Hanover
  • March 5: Mary of Wales is born to George Augustus, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales at Leicester House

1724

  • December 18: Louisa of Wales is born to George Augustus, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales at Leicester House
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George Augustus, Caroline and their children

1725

  • George I visits Hanover
  • March 6: Henry Stuart is born to James Stuart and Maria Clementina Sobieska Stuart in Rome
  • May 18: George I establishes the Order of the Bath
  • September 3: The Treaty of Hanover is signed by Great Britain, France and Prussia

1726

  • July 27: William of Wales, son of George Augustus, Prince of Wales, is created Duke of Cumberland
  • November 13: Sophia Dorothea of Celle, former wife of George I dies at Ahlden Castle in Germany. Because their marriage was legally ended, she was never titled queen of England

1727

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George II

1728

  • Frederick of Hanover, son of George II, arrives in England for the first time

1729

  • January 8: Frederick of Hanover, son of George II, is created Prince of Wales
  • November 9: The Treaty of Seville is signed between Great Britain, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic
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Frederick, Prince of Wales

1731

  • March 16: The Treaty of Vienna is signed between Great Britain, the Holy Roman Empire, Holland and Spain

1734

  • March 25: Anne of Great Britain, daughter of George II and William IV, Prine of Orange are married at St. James’s Palace
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Anne of Hanover, Princess of Orange

1735

  • September 22: Robert Walpole, Prime Minster of Great Britain, moves to 10 Downing Street

1736

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Caroline of Ansbach, Queen of England

1737

1738

  • March 28: Robert Jenkins presents a human ear he claims was cut off by a Spanish captain in the Caribbean to Parliament
  • June 4: George of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Norfolk House in London
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Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales

1739

  • January 14: The Convention of Pardo is signed between Great Britain and Spain
  • March 35: Edward of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Norfolk House in London
  • October 23: Great Britain declares war on Spain, beginning the War of Jenkins’ Ear

1740

1741

  • January 10: Elizabeth of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Norfolk House in London

1742

  • February 11: Robert Walpole steps down as Prime Minister is succeeded by Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington
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George II

1743

  • June 16: The Battle of Dettingen is fought in Bavaria, in which George II leads the troops from Great Britain and Brunswick against the French. This battle marks the last time an English monarch participates in a battle
  • August 27: Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington dies in office as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Henry Pelham
  • September 13: The Treaty of Worms is signed between Great Britain, the Holy Roman Empire and Sardinia
  • October 25: France and Spain form the Alliance of Fontainebleau with the goal of capturing Gibraltar from Great Britain
  • November 25: William of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Leicester House in London
  • December 11: Louisa of Great Britain, daughter of George II and Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway in Copenhagen

1744

  • March 4 – 15: France declares war on Great Britain
  • December 28: Great Britain, Austria, Saxony-Poland and the United Netherlands form the Quadruple Alliance against Prussia

1745

  • April 30 – May 11: British forces are defeated at the Battle of Fontenoy
  • June 16: Great Britain capture Cape Breton Island from France
  • July 23: Charles Stuart, grandson of James II lands in Scotland
  • August 15 – August 26: During the Convention of Hanover, George II makes peace with Prussia and ends support for Austria
  • August 16: Charles Stuart defeats British forces at Highbridge Skirmish
  • September 11: Charles Stuart enters Edinburgh
  • September 17: Charles Stuart declares his father, James Stuart, James VIII, King of Scotland
  • September 21: The Battle of Prestonpans is fought, in which the Jacobites defeat British forces
  • November 7: Henry of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Leicester House in London
  • November 13 – November 15: The Jacobites besiege and capture Carlisle
  • December: Jacobite forces surrender to William, Duke of Cumberland
  • December 4: Jacobite forces reach Derby
  • December 6: Jacobite forces reatreat to Scotland
  • December 23: The Battle of Inverurie is fought, in wich Jacobite forces deafeat the British

1746

  • January 8: Charles Stuart and his forces reaches Stirling
  • January 17: The Battle of Falkirk is fought, in which British forces defeat Jacobite forces
  • April 16: The Battle of Culloden is fought, in which Jacobite forces are defeated by the British
  • June 27: Charles Stuart escapes to the Isle of Skye
  • August 6: Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway and Louisa of Great Britain, Crown Princess of Denmark and Norway and daughter of George II, ascend the Danish and Norwegian thrones
  • September 30: Charles Stuart escapes to France
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Louise of Great Britain, Queen of Denmark and Norway

1747

  • April 9: Simon Fraser, a Jacobite supporter, is executed at the Tower of London. His beheading would be the last in Great Britain
  • May 14: The First Battle of Cape Finisterre is fought, in which Great Britain defeats France
  • June: Great Britain forms an alliance with Russia
  • October 25: The Second Battle of Cape Finisterre is fought, which Great Britain ends French naval operations for the remainder of the War of Austrian Succession
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Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales with their children

1748

  • October 18: The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession

1749

  • March 19: Louisa of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Leicester House in London

1750

  • May 13: Frederick of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Leicester House in London
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Frederick, Prince of Wales

1751

  • March 31: Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of George II dies in Buckinghamshire; George of Wales becomes the new Duke of Cornwall
  • July 22: Caroline Matilda of Wales is born to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales at Leicester House in London
  • December 19: Louisa of Great Britain, Queen of Denmark and Norway and daughter of George II dies at Christianborg Palace in Copenhagen

1753

  • July 7: George II approves the Jewish Naturalization Act, but its lack of popularity leads to its repeal in the following year

1754

  • Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Mary of Great Britain, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel and daughter of George II separate, ostensibly because of Frederick’s conversion to Catholicism
  • March 6: Henry Pelham, Prime Minister, dies in office and is succeeded by his brother, Thomas Pelham-Holles
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Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales

1756

  • Mary of Great Britain, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel and daughter of George II moves to Denmark to care for the children of her sister, Louisa of Great Britain, Queen of Denmark
  • January 16: The Treaty of Westminster is signed between Great Britain and Prussia, in which it’s decided that Hanover will remain neutral
  • April 12: France invades the British-owned Minorca
  • May 17: Great Britain declares war on France
  • May 20: The Battle of Minorca is fought, in which France defeats Great Britain
  • June 29: The British garrison in Minorca surrenders to France
  • November 16: Thomas Pelham-Holles resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire

1757

1758

  • April 29: The Battle of Cuddalore is fought indecisively between Great Britain and France
  • June 23: The Battle of Krefeld is fought in which Anglo-Hanoverian forces defeat the French

1759

  • January 12: Anne of Great Britain, Princess of Orange, daughter of George II, dies at The Hague
  • May 1: British forces capture Guadeloupe from the French
  • August 1: The Battle of Minden is fought, in which British-Hanoverian forces defeat French forces
  • August 18: The Battle of Lago is fought, in which British forces defeat French forces
  • September 4: Elizabeth of Wales, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales, dies at Kew Palace
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George III

1760

  • April 1: Edward of Wales, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, is made Duke of York
  • October 25: George II dies at Kensington Palace; George III ascends the throne

1761

  • August 15: The Pacte de Familile is signed, in which France and Spain form an alliance against Great Britain
  • September 8: George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, daughter of Charles, Duke of Mecklenburg, are married at St. James’s Palace
  • September 22: George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz are crowned king and queen of Great Britain at Westminster Abbey
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Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of England

1762

  • March 10: Great Britain captures Grenada from France
  • May: Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by John Stuart, Earl of Bute
  • May 22: George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz take up residence of Buckingham House in London
  • August 12: George, Duke of Cornwall is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at St. James’s Palace
  • August 19: George, Duke of Cornwall is named Prince of Wales by his father, George III

1763

  • February 10: The Treaty of Paris is signed between Great Britain and France, and Canada is ceded to the British
  • May: John Stuart, Earl of Bute resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by George Grenville
  • August 16: Frederick of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at St. James’s Palace

1764

  • January 16: Augusta of Wales, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Charles, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel are married at St. James’s Palace
  • April 5: Parliament passes the Sugar Act
  • August: Protests break out in Boston over Great Britain’s governance of the North American colonies
  • November 19: William of Wales, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, is made Duke of Gloucester

1765

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Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of England with her eldest daughter, Princess Charlotte

1766

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Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of England

1767

  • June 9: The Townshend Acts are passed by Parliament
  • September 17: Edward, Duke of York, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales dies at the Prince’s Palace in Monaco-Ville
  • November 2: Edward of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London

1768

  • May 13: Louisa of Wales, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales dies at Carlton House in London
  • May 17: Caroline of Brunswick is born to Charles, Duke of Brunswick and Augusta of Wales, Duchess of Brunswick in Brunswick
  • October 14: William Pitt, Earl of Chatham resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Augustus FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton
  • November 8: Augusta of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London
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George III

1770

  • January 17: The Battle of Golden Hill is fought between the British and their colonists in New York
  • January 28: Augustus FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Frederick, Lord North
  • March 5: The Boston Massacre takes place, in which five colonists are killed by British soldiers
  • April 12: Parliament repeals the Townshend Act

1771

  • January 22: Spain cedes the Falkland Islands to Great Britain
  • June 5: Ernest of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London
  • October 2: Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Anne Horton are married without the permission of George III
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Henry, Duke of Cumberland

1772

1773

  • January 27: Augustus of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London
  • May: Parliament passes the Regulating Act
  • May 10: The Tea Act goes into effect
  • December 16: The Boston Tea Party is held in the Boston Harbor

1774

  • February 24: Adolphus of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London
  • March 31: The Boston Port is closed
  • June 2: The Quartering Act is re-enacted in the colonies
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Caroline Matilda of Wales, Queen of Denmark

1775

  • February 9: Parliament declares the colony of Massachusetts in rebellion
  • April 19: The Battle of Lexington and Concord is fought, in which the colonists defeat the British
  • May 10: Caroline Matilda of Wales, Queen of Denmark and daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales dies in Celle, Hanover
  • July 5: The Continental Congress sends the Olive Branch Petition to George III
  • August 23: George III issues a Proclamation of Rebellion against the colonies

1776

  • April 25: Mary of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London
  • May 4: Rhode Island renounces its allegiance to George III
  • July 4: The United States Declaration of Independence is ratified by the Second Continental Congress

1777

1778

  • February 6: Great Britain declares war on France for providing military assistance to the colonists
  • June 16: Spain declares war on Great Britain
  • July 10: France declares war on Great Britain
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The three youngest daughters of George III

1779

  • February 23: Octavius of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House in London
  • April 12: France and Spain sign a secret treaty against Great Britain
  • June 16: Spain declares war on Great Britain

1780

  • June 2: The Gordon Riots, an Anti-Catholic mob that marches on Parliament, begin in London
  • September 22: Alfred of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Windsor Castle

1781

  • October 19: The British forces surrender to the North American colonists after the Battle of Yorktown

1782

  • March 19: Frederick, Lord North resigns as Prime Minister
  • March 27: Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham is named Prime Minister
  • May 17: Parliament repeals the Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act of 1719, restoring the Irish Parliament’s legislative independence
  • July 4: Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham steps down as Prime Minister and is succeeded by William Petty, Earl of Shelburne
  • August 20: Alfred of Great Britain, son of George III, dies at Windsor Castle
  • November 30: The Treaty of Paris is signed by representatives from the United States and Great Britain
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George, Prince of Wales

1783

  • February 4: Great Britain declares that it will cease hostilities with the United States
  • February 24: William Petty, Earl of Shelburne steps down as Prime Minister and is succeeded by William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland
  • May 3: Octavius of Great Britain, son of George III, dies at Kew Palace
  • August 7: Amelia of Great Britain is born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at the Royal Lodge in Windsor
  • September 3: The Peace of Paris is signed by Great Britain and the United States, formally ending the American Revolutionary War. Treaties are signed between Great Britain, France and Spain at Versailles to end hostilities
  • November 25: The last British troops leave New York City
  • December 17: George III dismisses the Fox-North Coalition
  • December 19: William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland steps down as Prime Minister and is succeeded by William Pitt the Younger

1784

  • May 20: A treaty between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic is signed in Paris ending the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
  • August 13: Parliament passes the India Act, regulating the East India Company
  • November 27: Frederick of Great Britain, son of George III, is made Duke of York

1785

1786

  • October 31: Amelia of Great Britain, daughter of George II, dies in London

1788

  • January 31: Charles Stuart, grandson of James II, dies in Rome
  • August 13: A Triple Alliance is formed between Great Britain, Prussia and the Dutch Republic
  • August 22: Great Britain signs a treaty with Sierra Leon, allowing for the creation of a settlement for freed slaves
  • October: George III has his first prolonged bout of mental illness
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Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of England

1789

1790

  • July 27: The Treaty of Reichenbach is signed between Great Britain, Prussia, Russia and the Dutch Republic
  • September 18: Henry, Duke of Cumberland, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales dies in London

1791

  • September 29: Frederick, Duke of York, son of George III, and Frederica of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William II, King of Prussia are married at Charlottenburg in Berlin
  • November 23: Frederick, Duke of York and Frederica of Prussia, Duchess of York are married a second time at Buckingham Palace

1792

  • March 7: A freed slave settlement is formally set up in Sierra Leone
  • August 13: Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen is born to George, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and Luise Eleanore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen in Meiningen
  • December 18: Thomas Paine is convicted of treason in absentia and he is outlawed

1793

  • February1: The French First Republic declares war on Great Britain
  • April 4: Augustus of Great Britain, son of George III, and Augusta Murray are married in Rome
  • September 18: British troops supporting the French Royalists are forced to withdraw from Toulon after a successful siege by Napoleon
  • December 5: Augustus of Great Britain and Augusta Murray, Princess Augustus are married a second time at St. George’s, Hanover Square in London
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Maria Fitzherbert

1794

  • April 19: Great Britain forms an alliance with Prussia and the Netherlands against France
  • June 23: Maria Fitzherbert, illegal wife of George, Prince of Wales is informed by letter that her relationship with the prince is over
  • August: The Prerogative Court annuls the marriage of Augustus, son of George III, and Augusta Murray, Princess Augustus because it violated the Royal Marriages Act of 1772. The couple had two children and continued to live together until 1801
  • September 28: Great Britain forms an alliance with Russia and Austria against France
  • November 19: Great Britain and the United States sign Jay’s Treaty
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Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales

1795

1796

  • January 7: Charlotte of Wales is born to George, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales at Carlton House in London
  • February 1: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, is hit by a stone from the bread riots
  • April: George, Prince of Wales and Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales separate informally
  • October 5: Spain declares war on Great Britain
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Princess Charlotte of Wales

1797

  • February 14: The Battle of Cape St. Vincent is fought, in which the British navy defeats the Spanish navy off the coast of Portugal
  • February 22: French forces land in Wales
  • February 24: American Colonel William Tate surrenders to the British
  • May 18: Charlotte of Great Britain, daughter of George III, and Frederick of Wurttemberg, son of Frederick II, Duke of Wurttemberg are married at St. James’s Palace
  • August: Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales and wife of George, Prince of Wales moves to a private residence
  • December 22: Frederick of Wurttemberg and Charlotte of Great Britain, Princess of Wurttemberg succeed as Duke and Duchess of Wurttemberg

1798

  • December 4: William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of Great Britain, announces income tax in Parliament to fund wars against France
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Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales

1799

  • April 24: Edward of Great Britain and Ernest of Great Britain, sons of George III, are made the Dukes of Kent and Cumberland

1800

  • July 2 & August 1: The Acts of Union merge Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom, effective January 1, 1801
  • December: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz introduces the concept of a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle
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Ernest, Duke of Cumberland

1801

  • February 2: The Parliament of the United Kingdom meets for the first time
  • February 5: William Pitt the Younger resigns as Prime Minister of Great Britain and begins the new post of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • March 1: The London Stock Exchange is founded
  • March 14: William Pitt the Younger resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by Henry Addington, Lord Sidmouth on March 17
  • March 21: The Battle of Alexandria is fought, in which the British defeat the French
  • June 18: The British take over Cairo
  • July 6: The Battle of Algeciras is fought, in which the French defeat the British
  • July 12: The Second Battle of Algeciras is fought, in which the British defeat the French and the Spanish
  • September 30: The Treaty of London is signed between the First French Republic and the United Kingdom
  • November 27: Augustus and Adolphus of Great Britain, sons of George III, are made the Dukes of Sussex and Cambridge
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Augustus, Duke of Sussex

1802

  • March 27: The Treaty of Amiens is signed between the United Kingdom and France

1803

  • February 21: The last sentence of being hanged, drawn and quartered is meted out to Edward Despard for plotting to assassinate George III
  • April 2: The Easton Massacre occurs, in which three citizens are killed during an attempt to compel village members into military service
  • May 18: The United Kingdom declares war on France after France fails to withdraw from Dutch territories
  • September 26: Henry Stuart, grandson of James II, is appointed Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia and Velletri

1804

  • April 26: Henry Addington, Lord Sidmouth resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • May 10: William Pitt the Younger succeeds as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • December 12: Spain declares war on the United Kingdom
(c) National Galleries of Scotland; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation
Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales

1805

  • August 25: William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, dies at Gloucester House
  • October 21: The Battle of Trafalgar is fought, in which Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats French and Spanish fleets off the coast of Spain and is fatally wounded

1806

  • The Delicate Investigation, a commission to investigate whether William Austin, a boy in the household of Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales, was her illegitimate son, begins. The investigation rules that Austin is not Caroline’s son, however during its duration she was barred from seeing her daughter, Charlotte of Wales
  • January 1: France recognizes Frederick, Duke of Wurttemberg and Charlotte of the United Kingdom, Duchess of Wurttemberg, and daughter of George III, as king and queen of Wurttemberg
  • January 10: The Dutch in Cape Town resign to the British
  • January 19: The British take over the Cape of Good Hope
  • January 23: William Pitt the Younger dies in office and is succeeded as Prime Minister by William, Lord Grenville
  • November: Napoleon declares a Continental Blockade against the United Kingdom
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George III

1807

  • March 25: The Slave Trade Act becomes law, abolishing slavery in the majority of the British Empire
  • March 31: William, Lord Grenville resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland
  • July 13: Cardinal Henry Stuart, Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and grandson of James II dies in Rome ending the Jacobite line
  • September: Russia declares war on the United Kingdom

1808

  • January 1: Sierra Leone becomes a British Colony

1809

  • January 5: The Treaty of Dardanelles is signed between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire
  • October 4: William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Spencer Perceval
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George, Prince Regent

1810

  • October: George III is officially recognized to be insane
  • November 2: Amelia of the United Kingdom, daughter of George III, dies at the Augusta Lodge in Windsor
  • November 17: Sweden declares war on the United Kingdom

1811

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Princess Charlotte of Wales

1812

  • May 11: Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, is assassinated by John Bellingham
  • June 8: Robert Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • June 18: The War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States begins
  • July 18: The Treaty of Orebo brings the Ango-Russian and Anglo-Swedish wars to an end

1813

  • March 23: Augusta of Wales, Duchess of Brunswick, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother of Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales dies in London
  • October 13: The Cape of Good Hope becomes a British colony

1814

  • July 12: George, Prince Regent informs his daughter, Charlotte of Wales, that she would be confined to Cranbourne Lodge going further, only allowed to see her grandmother, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and not her mother, Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales. She was eventually persuaded to return to her father
  • August 8: Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales departs England for the continent after working out a deal that would give her an annual allowance
  • August 13: The Anglo-Dutch Treaty is signed in London, returning gains the British won to the Netherlands, with the exception of the Cape of Good Hope and certain South American settlements
  • August 24: British soldiers burn Washington, D.C.
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Princess Charlotte of Wales and Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

1815

1816

  • March 18: Income tax is abolished
  • May 2: Charlotte of Wales, daughter of George, Prince Regent, and Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld are married at Carlton House in London
  • July 22: Mary of the Untied Kingdom, daughter of George III, and William, Duke of Gloucester, grandson of Frederick, Prince of Wales, are married at St. James’s Palace
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Princess Charlotte of Wales

1817

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Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess of Clarence

1818

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Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent

1819

  • March 27: Charlotte of Clarence is born to William, Duke of Clarence and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess of Clarence in Hanover
  • May 24: Victoria of Kent is born to Edward, Duke of Kent and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent at Kensington Palace in London
  • August 26: Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is born to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Alternburg, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at Schloss Rosenau in Coburg
  • September 5: Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess of Clarence gives birth to a stillborn child in Calais
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The trial of Caroline of Brunswick, Queen of England

1820

  • January 23: Edward, Duke of Kent, son of George III, dies at Woolbrook Cottage in Sidmouth
  • January 29: George III dies at Windsor Castle; George IV ascends the British throne
  • June 5: Caroline of Brunswick returns to England from abroad, where she had mainly been living in Italy
  • July 5: The Pains and Penalties Bill is introduced in Parliament, with the goal of denying Caroline of Brunswick, wife of George IV, the title of queen. The bill leads to an effective public trial of the King and Queen’s marriage and is eventually withdrawn
  • December 10: Elizabeth of Clarence is born to William, Duke of Clarence and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess of Clarence at St. James’s Palace
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Caroline of Brunswick, Queen of England

1821

  • March 21: Elizabeth of Clarence, daughter of William, Duke of Clarence, dies at St. James’s Palace
  • July 19: George IV is crowned king of the United Kingdom at Westminster Abbey. During the ceremony, Caroline of Brunswick is barred from the Abbey
  • August 7: Caroline of Brunswick wife of George IV, King of the United Kingdom, dies in Hammersmith, London

1822

  • April 8: Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess of Clarence gives birth to stillborn twin boys at Bushy Park in London
  • August 15 – 29: George IV, King of the United Kingdom visits Scotland, the first monarch to do so since Charles II did so while in exile
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Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent and her daughter, Princess Victoria

1823

  • July: The death penalty is abolished for over 100 offences

1824

  • November 15 – 21: The Great Fire Edinburgh leaves 400 families homeless
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Princess Victoria of Kent

1825

  • June 22: The Cotton Mills Regulation Act establishes a maximum 12-hour working day for children under the age of 16
  • September 27: The first railway opens
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George IV

1826

  • November 12: Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is made Duke of Saxony

1827

  • January 5: Frederick, Duke of York, son of George III, dies at Rutland House in London
  • January 17: Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington becomes Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
  • April 10: Robert Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool steps down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by George Canning
  • July 6: The Treaty of London is signed between Great Britain, France and Russia
  • August 8: George Canning dies in office and is succeed as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by F. J. Robinson, Lord Goderich
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Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent

1828

  • January 22: F. J. Robinson, Lord Goderich steps down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington
  • May 9: The Sacramental Test Act removes laws prohibiting Catholics from holding public office
  • October 5: Charlotte of Great Britain, Queen of Wurttemberg and daughter of George III, dies at Schloss Ludwigsburg

1829

  • March 21: Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and George Finch-Hatton, Earl of Winchilsea fight a duel over Wellington’s support for Catholic Emancipation. No one is injured
  • April 13: The Catholic Relief Act is passed by Parliament
  • June 19: Parliament establishes the Metropolitan Police Service
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William IV

1830

  • June 26: George IV, King of the United Kingdom dies at St. James’s Palace; William IV ascends the British throne
  • November 22: Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington steps down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by Charles, Earl Grey

1831

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Leopold I, King of Belgium

1832

  • June 4: The Great Reform Act becomes law

1833

  • August 28: The Slavery Abolition Act receives the approval of William IV, King of the United Kingdom, abolishing slavery in most of the British Empire
  • August 29: The Factory Act makes it illegal to employ children under the age of nine and limits children under the age of 13 to a nine-hour workday
  • November 27: Mary Adelaide of Cambridge is born to Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, son of George III, and Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, Duchess of Cambridge in Hanover
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Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Queen of England

1834

  • July 16: Charles, Earl Grey steps down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by William Lamb, Lord Melbourne
  • August 15: Parliament approves the creation of South Australia as a colony
  • October 16: The Palace of Westminster is destroyed by fire
  • November 14: William IV, King of the United Kingdom dismisses William Lamb, Lord Melbourne as Prime Minister and Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington forms a “caretaker government.” This is the last time a British monarch will choose a Prime Minister in opposition to Parliament
  • December 10: Sir Robert Peel assumes the office of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
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Princess Victoria of Kent

1835

  • April 18: Sir Robert Peel steps down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by William Lamb, Lord Melbourne
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William IV

1837

  • June 20: William IV, King of the United Kingdom dies at Windsor Castle; Queen Victoria ascends the British throne
  • June 20: Ernest, Duke of Cumberland, son of George III, ascends the throne of Hanover which can’t be inherited by Queen Victoria due to Salic law
  • July 13: Queen Victoria moves from Kensington Palace to Buckingham Palace, the first monarch to make it their primary London residence
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Queen Victoria

1838

  • June 28: Victoria is crowned queen of the United Kingdom at Westminster Abbey
  • October 1: The First Anglo-Afghan War begins

1839

  • April 19: The Treaty of London establishes Belgium, of which Queen Victoria’s uncle, Leopold I, is king, as an independent kingdom in Europe
  • May 7 – 11: The Bedchamber Crisis occurs at the royal court, during which Queen Victoria refuses to dismiss her Ladies of the Bedchamber whose husbands are Whigs, which prompts William Lamb, Lord Melbourne to stay in office as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in lieu of Sir Robert Peel
  • October 15: Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha are betrothed at Windsor Castle
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Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

1840

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The wedding of Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

1841

1842

  • May 11: The Income Tax Act establishes the first income tax levied during peacetime
  • August 9: The United Kingdom and the United States sign the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, which lays out the

1843

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Queen Victoria

1844

1846

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Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their five eldest children

1847

  • June 8: The Factory Act establishes a 10-hour working day for women and boys aged 13-18

1848

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Queen Victoria and her eldest daughter, Princess Victoria

1849

1850

  • May 1: Arthur of the United Kingdom is born to Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at Buckingham Palace in London
  • July 8: Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, son of George III, dies at Cambridge House in London
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Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

1851

1852

  • February 21: John, Earl Russell steps down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby
  • November 11: The new Palace of Westminster opens
  • December 19: Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby steps down Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is succeeded by George Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen on December 28
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Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their children

1853

  • April 7: Leopold of the United Kingdom is born to Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at Buckingham Palace in London. During his birth Queen Victoria used, for the first time, chloroform

1855

  • January 29: George Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen steps down as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Henry Temple, Lord Palmerston on February 5
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Queen Victoria

1856

  • May 17: The betrothal of Victoria of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria and Frederick of Prussia, grandson of Frederick William III, King of Prussia, is announced. The engagement has privately taken place the year before
  • March 31: The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War

1857

  • April 14: Beatrice of the United Kingdom is born to Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at Buckingham Palace in London
  • April 30: Mary of the United Kingdom, Duchess of Gloucester and daughter of George III dies at Gloucester House in London
  • June 25: Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, husband of Queen Victoria, is made Prince Consort
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The wedding of Victoria, Princess Royal and Prince Frederick of Prussia

1858

1859

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Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

1861

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Alice of the United Kingdom

1862

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Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark, Princess of Wales

1863

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Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark, Princess of Wales

1864

  • January 8: Albert Victor of Wales is born to Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark, Princess of Wales at Frogmore House in Windsor